Investigations of bacterial communities and characterization of mineralogy of the environment in the Złoty Stok As-Au deposit werecarried out. PXRD analysis revealed the presence of picropharmacolite as the most common secondary arsenic mineral in the mine. Total DNA was extracted from slime streams or slime biofilms samples to investigate the bacterial communities. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA was performed followed by subcloning of its products. Over 170 clones were analyzed by means of RFLP method. Eight group of clones representing different restriction patterns were identified. The nucleotide sequences of their inserts suggest that bacteria present in the mine environment belong to: Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteriia, Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, Mollicutes and Firmicutes. The metagenomic approach allows to demonstrate a higher diversity of microbiota than classical microbiological studies of cultivable isolates.