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2013 | 16 | 4 |

Tytuł artykułu

Evaluation of morphological criteria of sperm quality before in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection

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The quality of sperm has a direct influence on the fertilization and developmental competence of embryos. In the literature we did not find defined criteria for evaluation of normal sperm parameters in various species of domestic mammals. Therefore we attempted to review evaluation of criteria of morphologically normal human sperm and their abnormalities. All sperm cells observed in the stained sample are classified as normal or abnormal. Any abnormalities in morphology of sperm have a negative effect on the outcome in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Abnormal sperm are categorized into subgroups according to the observed defects (concerning the head and/or midpiece and/or tail). Most morphologically abnormal sperm have multiple defects. This article can be considered as guideline for the manual of sperm quality evaluation in different species of domestic mammals.

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Opis fizyczny



  • Department of Histology and Embryology 2 Institute of Anatomy, Academy of Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickeviciaus 9, LT-44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
  • Institute of Anatomy, Academy of Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickeviciaus 9, LT-44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
  • Department of Histology and Embryology 2 Institute of Anatomy, Academy of Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickeviciaus 9, LT-44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
  • Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Veterinary Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilzes 18, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
  • Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Veterinary Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilzes 18, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
  • Department of Histology and Embryology 2 Institute of Anatomy, Academy of Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, A. Mickeviciaus 9, LT-44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
  • Department Animal Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland


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