Nine PCR-based markers were developed from the microsatellites in non-coding regions of chloroplast genome of Cucumis sativus and used to detect chloroplast DNA variation. These markers successfully detected intraspecific polymorphism among 37 cucumber accessions containing Chinese native germplasms (CNGs) and non-Chinese germplasms (NCGs). Each marker detected between two and four alleles and the diversity value of the makers ranged from 0.105 to 0.528. Based on the data from allele size variation, a total of 17 distinct haplotypes were identified from the 35 accessions (excluding the two accessions possessing null genes). Three haplotypes were prevalent among CNGs but most NCGs had unique haplotype. No identical haplotype was found between CNGs and NCGs, reflecting lack of exchange of CNGs with others in the 60–80s of last century. A wild species (C. hystrix Chakr.) tested herein shared a haplotype with some CNGs, suggesting that it could be the ancestry of C. sativus or at least had a common ancestral lineage. The genetic relationship among the 37 cucumber accessions was further analyzed through construction of dendrogram based on Jaccard coefficient of similarity obtained from the allele sizes. All the CNGs were clustered into a group (containing the wild accession) that distinctly differed from the other four groups containing NCGs. This result agreed with the findings above obtained from haplotype analysis. Our research documented here will offer useful information for cucumber breeding.