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2015 | 18 | 3 |
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The influence of experimental administration of low zearalenone doses on the expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and on selected subpopulations of lymphocytes in intestinal lymph nodes

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The aim of this study was to characterize the immune response taking place in ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLN) in control (n=15) and zearalenone (ZEN)-treated (n=15) pigs. The experiment was carried out over 42 days; a dose of 0.1 mg kg⁻¹ feed day⁻¹ of ZEN was administered to the animals. The dose used in the experiment was at a level where no adverse effects are observed (NOAEL) in the ovaries, uterus and vagina. ICLN samples for analysis were collected on the 14th, 28th and 42nd day of the experiment. The analysis of cytokine concentration in the tissues showed that pigs treated with ZEN had an increased level of cytokines produced by helper Th1 lymphocytes (IL-2, IL-12 and IFN- γ) on the 28th day of the experiment. The level of cytokines produced by helper Th2 lymphocytes (IL-4 and IL-10) was characterized by a statistically non-significant upward trend, as compared with the control group. Flow cytometry showed a linear decrease in the percentage of CD21+ B, CD2+ T and CD4+CD8- T cells and an increase in the percentage of CD8+CD4- and TCRγδ + T cells in pigs treated with ZEN. Both ZEN and α-ZEL (α-zearalenone) concentrations increased over time in the liver, but only ZEN concentration increased in ICLN. The results obtained demonstrate that a NOAEL concentration of ZEN shifts the immune response in pig ICLN towards Th1/Th17, probably with a simultaneous activation of M1 macrophages. Moreover, we observed an increase in humoral cytokine secretion; this can be explained by a negative feedback loop and a phenotypic switch of macrophages from M1 to M2, as well as a switch of immune response from Th1 to Th2 type. ZEN can therefore influence the process of cytokine secretion and the percentage of lymphocytes in ileocecal lymph nodes.
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  • Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Warszawska 30, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Department of Animal Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Division of Animal Pathophysiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
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