Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2001 | 46 | 2 |
Tytuł artykułu

Carved teeth and strange jaws: how glyptodonts masticated

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
In this paper, the highly peculiar masticatory apparatus of glyptodonts is studied. The general morphology of the skull is analysed using a morphometric procedure, the Resistant Fit Theta Rho Analysis, which allows comparison among different biological forms. Here, a large terminal form, the late Pleistocene genus Glyptodon, is compared with the smaller primitive Miocene genus Propalaehoplophorus, and with the generalised Recent armadillo Chaetophractus. The masticatory musculature of glyptodonts is reconstructed. Their tooth form and wear facets, as well as their mandibular symphysis and jaw joint, are analysed. A model of jaw movement is constructed based on these analyses. It is demonstrated that the masticatory apparatus of glyptodonts had undergone a telescoping process, which was already underway in the most ancient forms whose skull is known. This process created problems in regard to the way stresses produced by mastication were absorbed by the mandible, and therefore it might be regarded as non-adaptive. Some functional explanatory hypotheses are discussed, such as a requirement of keeping the moment of the weight of the cranium small enough to be counterbalanced by the neck muscles, or fitting the head into the armour.
Opis fizyczny
  • Departamento de Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay
  • Departamento Cientifico Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
  • Alexander, R.McN. 1981. Factors of safety in the structure of animals. -Science Progress 67, 109-130.
  • Alexander, R.McN. 1983. Animal Mechanics. 2nd ed. x + 301 pp. Blackwell, London.
  • Alexander, R.McN., Fariña, R.A., & Vizcaíno, S.F. 1999. Tail blow energy and carapace fractures in a large glyptodont (Mammalia, Edentata). -Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 126,41-49.
  • Benson, R.H., Chapman, R., & Siegel, A.P. 1982. On the measurement of morphology and its change. - Paleobiology 8, 328-339.
  • Burmeister, H. 1874. Monografía de los glyptodontes en el Museo Público de Buenos Aires. - Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 2, vi + 1-412.
  • Carlini, A.A. & Scillato-Yané, G.J. 1993. Origin and evolution of 'glyptodontoids'. -Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 13 (supplement to No. 3), p. 28A.
  • Cartelle, C. & Bohórquez, G.A. 1985. Pampatherium paulacoutoi, uma nova espécie de tatu gigante da Bahia, Brasil (Edentata, Dasypodidae). - Revista Brasileira de Zoologia (São Paulo) 2,229-254.
  • Chapman, R.E. 1990a. Conventional Procrustes approaches. In: F.J. Rohlf & F.L. Bookstein (eds.), Proceedings of the Michigan Morphometrics Workshop, 251-267. Special Publication 2, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
  • Chapman, R.E. 1990b. Shape analysis in the study of dinosaurs morphology. In: K. Carpenter & P.J. Currie (eds.), Dinosaur Systematics: Perspectives and Approaches, 21-42. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Currey, J.D. 1984. The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. 294 pp. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • De Iuliis, G., Bargo, M.S., & Vizcaíno, S.F. 2000. Variation in skull morphology and mastication in the fossil giant armadillos Pampatherium spp. and allied genera (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Pampatheriidae) with comments on their systematics and distribution. -Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20, 743-754.
  • De Iuliis, G. & Edmund, A.G. (in press). Description of Vassallia maxima Castellanos, 1946 from puerta del Corral Quemado, Catamarca Province, Argentina. - Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology.
  • Dimery, N.J. 1985. Muscle and sarcomere length in the hind limb of arabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) during a galloping stride. -Journal of Zoology A 205, 373-383.
  • Engelmann, G.F. 1985. The phylogeny of the Xenarthra. In: G.G. Montgomery (ed.), The Evolution and Ecology of Armadillos, Sloths and Vermilinguas, 5 1-64. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
  • Fariña, R.A. 1985. Some functional aspects of mastication in Glyptodontidae (Mammalia). - Fortschritte der Zoologie 30, 277-280.
  • Fariña, R.A. 1988. Observaciones adicionales sobre la biomecánica masticatoria en Glyptodontidae (Mammalia; Edentata). - Boletín de la Sociedad Zoológica (2a. época) 4, 5-9.
  • Farifia, R.A. 1995. Limb bone strength and habits in large glyptodonts. - Lethaia 28, 189-196.
  • Fariña, R.A. & Parietti, M. 1983. Uso del método RFTRA en la comparación de la morfología craneana en Edentata. Resúmenes y Comunicaciones de las 3as. Jornadas de Ciencias Naturales, 106-108.
  • Fariña, R.A., Vizcaíno, S.F., & Bargo, MS. 1998. Body mass estimations in Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene of South America) mammal megafauna.- Mastozoología Neotropical 5, 87-108.
  • Fariña, R.A.,Vizcaíno, S.F., & Blanco, R.E. 1997. Scaling of the indicator of athletic capability in fossil and extant land tetrapods. -Journal of Theoretical Biology 185,441-446.
  • Ferigolo, J. 1985. Evolutionary trends of the histological pattern in the teeth of Edentata (Xenarthra). -Archives of Oral Biology 30,71-82.
  • Flynn, J.J. & Swisher, C.C. 1995. Cenozoic South American Land Mammal Ages: correlation to global geochronologies. - SEPM Special Publication 54, 317-333.
  • Gillette, D.D. & Ray, C.E. 1981. Glyptodonts of North America. - Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 40, 1-251.
  • Greaves, W.S. 1973. The inference of jaw motion from tooth wear facets. -Journal of Paleontology 47, 1000-1001.
  • Greaves, W.S. 1974. Functional implications of mammalian jaw positions. - Fomza et functio 7, 263-376.
  • Greaves, W.S. 1978. The jaw lever system in ungulates: a new model. -Journal of Zoology 184, 271-285.
  • Greaves, W.S. 1982. A mechanical limitation on the position of the jaw muscles of mammals: the one-third rule. -Journal of Mammalogy 63, 261-266.
  • Hoffstetter, R. 1958. Xenarthra. In: J. Piveteau (ed.), Traité de Paléontologie 6 (2), 535-636. Masson et Cie, Paris.
  • Hoffstetter, R. 1982. Les Édentés xenarthres, un groupe singulier de la faune Neotropical. In: E.M. Gallitelli (ed.), Paleontology, Essential of Historical Geology, 535-636. STEM Mocchi Modena Press, Modena.
  • Janis, C. 1988. An estimation of tooth volume and hypsodonty indices in Ungulate mammals, and the correlation of these factors with dietary preference. In: D.E. Russell, J.P. Santoro, & D. Sigogneau-Russell (eds.), Teeth Revisited: Proceedings of the VII International Symposium on Dental Morphology, Paris 1986. -Memoirs de Musée national d'Histoire naturelle (série C) 53, 367-387.
  • Janis, C.M. 1990. Correlation of cranial and dental variables with the dietary preferences in mammals: a comparison of macropodoids and ungulates. -cMemoirs of the Queensland Museum 28, 349-363.
  • Janis, C. & Fortelius, M. 1988. On the means whereby mammals achieve increased functional durability of their dentitions, with special reference to limiting factors. - Biological Review 63, 197-230.
  • Josephson, R.K. 1993. Contraction dynamics and power output of skeletal muscle. -Annual Review of Physiology 55,527-546.
  • Lessa, E.P. & Fariña, R.A. 1996. Reassessment of extinction patterns among the late Pleistocene mammals of South America. - Palaeontology 39,651-662.
  • Lessa, E.P., Van Valkenburgh, B., & Fariña, R.A. 1997. Testing hypotheses of differential mammalian extinctions subsequent to the Great American Biotic Interchange. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 135, 157-162.
  • McNab, B.K. 1989. On the selective persistence of mammals in South America. -Advances in Neotropical Mammalogy 1989,605-614.
  • Naples, V.L. 1987. Reconstruction of cranial morphology and analysis of function in Nothrotheriops shastense. - Contributions to Science Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History 389, 1-21.
  • Patterson, B. & Pascual, R. 1968. Evolution of mammals on southern continents. -Quarterly Review of Biology 43, 409-451.
  • Patterson, B. & Pascual, R. 1972. The fossil mammal fauna of South America. In: A. Keast, F. Erk, & B. Glass (eds.), Evolution, Mammals, and Southern Continents, 247-309. State University of New York Press, Albany, New York.
  • Pérez, L.M., Scillato-Yané, G.J., & Vizcaíno, S.F. 2000. Estudio morfofuncional del aparato hioideo de Glyptodon sp. (Cingulata, Glyptodontidae). - Ameghiniana 37,293-299.
  • Robertson, J.S. 1976. Latest Pliocene mammals from Haile 15A, Halachua County, Florida. - Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 20, 111-186.
  • Scillato-Yané, G.J. 1986. Los Xenarthra fósiles de Argentina (Mammalia, Edentata). -Actas IV Congreso Argentino de Paleontología y Bioestratigraía 2, 15 1-155.
  • Scott, W.B. 1903-04. Mammalia of the Santa Cruz beds. I. Edentata. In: W.B. Scott (ed.), Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia 1896-1899, 1-364. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Siegel, A.P. & Benson, R.H. 1982. A robust comparison of biological shape. - Biometrics 38, 341-350.
  • Sneath, P.H.A. 1967. Trend-surface analysis of transformation grids. -Journal of Zoology 151, 65-122.
  • Storch, G. 1968. Funktionstypen des Kiefergelenks bei Saeugetieren. - Natur und Museum 98, 41-46.
  • Thomason, J.J. (ed.) 1995. Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology. xi + 293 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Turnbull, W.D. 1970. The mammalian masticatory apparatus. - Fieldiana Geology 18, 149-356.
  • Vinacci Thul, E.L. 1945. Osteografía cefálica de Glyptodon reticulatus Ow. - Physis 20, 24-30.
  • Vizcaíno, S.F. 1997. Myrmecophagy and skull shape in armadillos studied by conventional Procrustes method. - Journal of Morphology 232, 336.
  • Vizcaíno, S.F. & Bargo, M.S. 1998. The masticatory apparatus of the armadillo Eutatus (Mammalia, Cingulata) and some other allied genera: paleobiology and evolution. - Paleobiology 24, 371-383.
  • Vizcaíno, S.F., De Iuliis, G., & Bargo, M.S. 1998. Skull shape, masticatory apparatus, and diet of Vassallia and Holmesina (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Pampatheriidae). When anatomy constrains destiny. - Journal of Mammalian Evolution 5, 293-321.
  • Wells, J.B. 1965. Comparison of mechanical properties between slow and fast mammalian muscles. - Journal of Physiology 178, 252-269.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.