Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2019 | 69 | 1 |

Tytuł artykułu

Importance of cheese whey processing: supplements for sports activities - a review

Treść / Zawartość

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Whey protein (WP) is a highly nutritious, commercially available alternative food source that is used primarily as a food supplement by athletes and physically active individuals to provide them with essential amino acids and bioactive peptides, and additional benefits have been attributed to WP consumption. In this context, the objective of this review was to explore current evidence regarding the consumption of different WP supplements in sports nutrition to elucidate their efficiency in affecting muscle hypertrophy, physical performance, response to muscle injury, weight loss, and body composition changes. Furthermore, these effects were assessed by comparing whey protein hydrolysate (WPH), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein isolate (WPI) supplementation. Supplementation with WPI or WPC was related to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and WPH caused muscle hypertrophy and improved physical performance. Compared to WPC and WPI, WPH improved peak torque associated with strength training without reducing the creatine kinase (CK) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels in this type of physical activity, and the decreases in CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) associated with aerobic exercise were significant. Supplementation with WPC resulted in weight loss, satiety, and improved body composition, without compromising whole-body lean mass loss. WPH was more effective than WPC and WPI regarding improved peak torque and muscle hypertrophy associated with strength training, and WPH reduced muscle damage associated with aerobic exercise via decreased CK levels.








Opis fizyczny



  • Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, University of Vale do Taquari - Univates, Av.Avelino Tallini, 171, ZC 95914–014, Lajeado, RS, Brazil
  • Center of Biological and Health Sciences, Nutrition Course, University of Vale do Taquari - Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil
  • Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, University of Vale do Taquari - Univates, Av.Avelino Tallini, 171, ZC 95914–014, Lajeado, RS, Brazil
  • Center of Biological and Health Sciences, Nutrition Course, University of Vale do Taquari - Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil
  • Center of Biological and Health Sciences, Nutrition Course, University of Vale do Taquari - Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil
  • Cell Culture Laboratory, Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, University of Vale do Taquari - Univates, Lajeado, RS, Brazil
  • Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, University of Vale do Taquari - Univates, Av.Avelino Tallini, 171, ZC 95914–014, Lajeado, RS, Brazil


  • 1. Acheson, K.J., Blondel-Lubrano, A., Oguey-Araymon, S., Beaumont, M., Emady-Azar, S., Ammon-Zufferey, C., Monnard, I., Pinaud, S., Nielsen-Moennoz, C., Bovetto, L. (2011). Protein choices targeting thermogenesis and metabolism. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93(3), 525–534.
  • 2. Amaral, G.V., Silva, E.K., Cavalcanti, R., Martins, C.P.C., Andrade, L.G.Z.S., Moraes, J., Alvarenga V.O., Guimarães, J.T., Esmerino, E., Freitas, M.Q., Silva, M.C., Raices, R.S.L., Sant’Ana, A.S., Meireles, M.A.A., Cruz, A.G. (2018). Whey-grape juice drink processed by supercritical carbon dioxide technology: physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and volatile profile. Food Chemistry, 239, 697–703.
  • 3. Aoi, W.A., Takanami, Y., Kawai, Y., Morifuji, M., Koga, J., Kanegae, M., Mihara, K., Yanohara, T., Mukai, J., Naito, Y., Yoshikawa, T. (2011). Dietary whey hydrolysate with exercise alters the plasma protein profile: a comprehensive protein analysis. Nutrition, 27(6), 687–692.
  • 4. Areta, J.L., Burke, L.M., Ross, M.L., Camera, D.M., West, D.W.D., Broad, E.M., Jeacocke, N.A., Moore, D.R., Stellingwerff, T., Phillips, S.M., Hawley, J.A., Coffey, V.G. (2013). Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. The Journal of Physiology, 591(9), 2319–2331.
  • 5. Atherton, P.J., Etheridge, T., Watt, P. W., Wilkinson, D., Selby, A., Rankin, D., Smith, K., Rennie, M.J. (2010). Muscle full effect after oral protein: time-dependent concordance and discordance between human muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 92(5), 1080–1088.
  • 6. Atherton, P.J., Kumar, V., Selby, A.L., Rankin, D., Hildebrandt, W., Phillips, B.E, Williams, J.P., Hiscock, N., Smith, K. (2017). Enriching a protein drink with leucine augments muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young and older men. Clinical Nutrition, 36(3), 888–895.
  • 7. Babault, N., Deley, G., Le, Ruyet P., Morgan, F., Allaert, F.A. (2014). Effects of soluble milk protein or casein supplementation on muscle fatigue following resistance training program: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11, 36.
  • 8. Baer, D.J., Stote, K.S., Paul, D.R., Harris, G.K., Rumpler, W.V., Clevidence, B.A. (2011). Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults. Journal of Nutrition, 141(8), 1489–1494.
  • 9. Bendtsen, L.Q., Lorenzen, J.K., Bendsen, N.T., Rasmussen, C., Astrup, A. (2013). Effect of dairy proteins on appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition: a review of the evidence from controlled clinical trials. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 4(4), 418–438.
  • 10. Berryman, C.E., Sepowitz, J.J., McClung, H.L., Lieberman, H.L., Farina, E.K., McClung, J.P. Ferrando, A.A., Pasiakos, S.M. (2017). Supplementing an energy adequate, higher protein diet with protein does not enhance fat-free mass restoration after short-term severe negative energy balance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(6), 1485–1493.
  • 11. Biocatalysts. The use of enzymes in the production of whey protein hydrolysates. (2014). Available from [] (accessed 01 December 2017).
  • 12. Blacker, S.D., Neil, C.W., Joanne, L.F., James, L.J.B., Mark, E.T.W. (2010). Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(2).
  • 13. Brancaccio, P., Maffulli N., Buonauro, R., Limongelli, F.M. (2008). Serum enzyme monitoring in sports medicine. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 27(1), 1–18.
  • 14. Brancaccio, P., Maffulli, N., Limongelli, F.M. (2007). Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine. British Medical Bulletin, 81–82. 209–30.
  • 15. Brown, M.A., Stevenson, E.J., Howatson, G. (2018). Whey protein hydrolysate supplementation accelerates recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in females. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 43(4), 324–330.
  • 16. Buckley, J.D., Thomson, R.L., Coates, A.M., Howe, P.R.C., DeNichilo, M.O., Rowney, M.K. (2010). Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle forcegenerating capacity following eccentric exercise. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(1), 178–181.
  • 17. Burd, N.A., Yang, Y., Moore, D.R., Tang, J.E., Tarnopolsky, M.A., Phillips, S.M. (2012). Greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with ingestion of whey protein isolate v. micellar casein at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. The British Journal of Nutrition, 108(6), 958–962.
  • 18. Burke, L.M., Winter, J.A., Cameron-Smith, D., Enslen, M., Farnfield, M., Decombaz, J. (2012). Effect of intake of different dietary protein sources on plasma amino acid profiles at rest and after exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 22(6), 452–462.
  • 19. Burnley, E.C.D., Olson, A.N., Sharp, R.L., Baier, S.M., Aleke, D.L. (2010). Impact of protein supplements on muscle recovery after exercise-induced muscle soreness. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 8(2), 89–96.
  • 20. Cannon, J.G. (2000). Inflammatory cytokines in non pathological states. News in Physiological Sciences, 15(6), 298–303.
  • 21. Cappato, L.P., Ferreira, M., Moraes, J., Pires, R.P.S., Rocha, R.S., Silva, R.C., Neto, R.P.C., Tavares, M.I.B., Freitas, M.Q., Rodrigues, F.N., Calado, V., Raices, R.S.L., Silva, M.C., Cruz, A.G. (2018). Whey acerola-flavoured drink submitted Ohmic Heating: bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, thermal behavior, water mobility, fatty acid profile and volatile compounds. Food Chemistry, 263, 81–88.
  • 22. Chen, W.C., Huang, W.C., Chiu, C.C., Chang, Y.K., Huang, C.C. (2014). Whey protein improves exercise performance and biochemical profiles in trained mice. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 46(8), 1517–1524.
  • 23. Chungchunlam, S.M.S., Henare, S.J., Ganesh, S., Moughan, P.J. (2017). Effects of whey protein and its two major protein components on satiety and food intake in normal-weight women. Physiology & Behavior, 175, 113–118.
  • 24. Churchward-Venne, T.A., Breen, L., Di Donato, D.M., Hector, A.J., Mitchell, C.J., Moore, D.R., Stellingwerff, T., Breuille, D., Offord, E.A., Baker, S.K., Phillips, S.M. (2014). Leucine supplementation of a low protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99(2), 276–286.
  • 25. Cruzat, V.F., Krause, M., Newsholme, P. (2014). Amino acid supplementation and impact on immune function in the context of exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11, 61.
  • 26. Cruzat, V.F., Rogero, M.M., Tirapegui, J. (2010). Effects of supplementation with free glutamine and the dipeptide alanyl-glutamine on parameters of muscle damage and inflammation in rats submitted to prolonged exercise. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 28(1), 24–30.
  • 27. Cruzat, V.F., Tirapegui, J. (2009). Effects of oral supplementation with glutamine and alanyl-glutamine on glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione status in trained rats and subjected to long-duration exercise. Nutrition, 25(4), 428–435.
  • 28. Davies, R.W., Carson, B.P., Jakeman, P.M. (2018). The effect of whey protein supplementation on the temporal recovery of muscle function following resistance training: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients, 10(2).
  • 29. Devries, M.C., Phillips, S.M. (2015). Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey. Journal of Food Science, 80, Suppl. 1, A8-A15.
  • 30. Duhamel, T.A., Green, H.J., Perco, J.G., Ouyang, J. (2005). Metabolic and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ cycling responses in human muscle 4 days following prolonged exercise. Canadian Journal of Physiology Pharmacology, 83(7), 643–655.
  • 31. Erskine, R.M., Fletcher, G., Hanson, B., Folland, J.P. (2012). Whey protein does not enhance the adaptations to elbow flexor resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44(9), 1791–1800.
  • 32. Erskine, R.M., Jones, D.A., Williams, A.G., Stewart, C.E., Degens, H. (2010). Inter-individual variability in the adaptation of human muscle specific tension to progressive resistance training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(6), 1117–1125.
  • 33. FAO. Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2013). Dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition: report ofan FAO expert consultation.Available from [http://www.fao. org/ag/humannutrition/35978-02317b979a686a57aa4593304ffc17f06.pdf] (accessed 01 December 2017).
  • 34. Farup, J., Rahbek, S.K., Riis, S., Vendelbo, M.H., Paoli, F., Vissing, K. (2014b). Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth. Journal of Applied Physiology, 117(8), 898–909.
  • 35. Farup, J., Rahbek, S.K., Vendelbo, M.H., Matzon, A., Hindhede, J., Bejder A., Ringgard, S., Vissing, K. (2014a). Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(9), 788–798.
  • 36. Gomes, D.L., Moehlecke, M., Silva, F.B.L., Dutra, E.S., D’Agord, S.B., Carvalho, K.M.B. (2017). Whey protein supplementation enhances body fat and weight loss in women long after bariatric surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Obesity Surgery, 27(2), 424–431.
  • 37. Grala A.P., Teixeira M.A.R., Nishitania T.C., Melosi A.F., Jacinto J.L., Aguiar A.F. (2017). Effects of leucine supplementation associated with resistance training on muscle strength in young subjects. Journal of Health Science, 19(2), 63–67 (in Portuguese; English abstract).
  • 38. Guimarães, J.T., Silva, E.K., Freitas, M.Q., Meireles, M.A.A., Cruz, A.G. Non-thermal emerging technologies and their effects on the functional properties of dairy products. (2018). Current Opinion in Food Science, 22, 62–66.
  • 39. Hackney, K.J., Bruenger, A.J., Lemmer, J.T. (2010). Timing protein intake increases energy expenditure 24 h after resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(5), 998–1003.
  • 40. Halford, J.C., Boyland, E.J., Lawton, C.L., Blundell, J.E., Harrold, J.A. (2011). Serotonergic anti-obesity agents: past experience and future prospects. Drugs, 71(17), 2247–2255.
  • 41. Hamarsland, H., Laahne, J.A.L, Paulsen, G., Cotter, M., Borsheim, E., Raastad, T. (2017). Native whey induces higher and faster leucinemia than other whey protein supplements and milk: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Nutrition, 3(10).
  • 42. Hansen, M., Bangsbo, J., Jensen, J., Bibby, B.M., Madsen, K. (2015). Effect of whey protein hydrolysate on performance and recovery of top-class orienteering runners. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(2), 97–109.
  • 43. Haraguchi, F.K., Abreu, W.C., Paula, H. (2006). Whey protein: composition, nutritional properties, applications in sports and benefits for human health. Revista de Nutrição, 19(4), 479–488 (in Portuguese; English abstract).
  • 44. Hector, A.J., Marcotte, G.R., Churchward-Venne, T.A., Murphy, C.H., Breen, L., von Allmen, M., Baker, S.K., Phillips, S.M. (2015). Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(2), 246–252.
  • 45. Hulmi, J.J., Laakso, M., Mero, A.A., Häkkinen, K., Ahtiainen, J.P., Peltonen, H. (2015). The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12, 48.
  • 46. IOM. Institute of Medicine. (2002/2005). Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients): panel on Macronutrients, Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and The Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board. Available from [] (accessed 01 December 2017).
  • 47. Jäger, R., Kerksick, C.M., Campbell, B.I., Cribb, P.J., Wells, S.D., Skwiat, T.M., Purpura, M., Ziegenfuss, T.N., Ferrando, A.A., Arent, S.M., Smith-Ryan, A.E., Stout, J.R., Arciero, P.J., Ormsbee, M.J., Taylor, L.W., Wilborn, C.D., Kalman, D.S., Kreider, R.B., Willoughby, D.S., Hoffman, J.R., Krzykowski, J.L., Antonio, J. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14, 20.
  • 48. Jakubowicz, D., Froy, O. (2013). Biochemical and metabolic mechanisms by which dietary whey protein may combat obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 24(1), 1–5.
  • 49. Jakubowicz, D., Wainsteina, J., Landaua, Z., Ahrenc, B., Barnead, M., Bar-Dayana, Froy, O. (2017). High-energy breakfast based on whey protein reduces body weight, postprandial glycemia and HbA1C in Type 2 diabetes. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 49, 1–7.
  • 50. Joy, J.M., Lowery, R.P., Wilson, J.M., Purpura, M., Souza, E.O., Wilson, S.M.C, Kalman, D.S., Dudeck, J. E., Jäger, R. (2013). The effects of 8 weeks of whey or rice protein supplementation on body composition and exercise performance. Nutrition Journal, 12, 86.
  • 51. Kankanamge, R., Jeewanthi, C., Lee, N-K., Lee, S-K., Yoon, Y.C., Paik, Hyun-D. (2015). Physicochemical characterization of hydrolysates of whey protein concentrates for their usein nutritional beverages. Food Science and Biotechnology, 24(4), 1335–1340.
  • 52. Kim, J., Chulhyn, L., Joohyung, L. (2017). Effect of timing of whey protein supplement on muscle damage markers after eccentric exercise. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 13(4), 436–440.
  • 53. Koury, J.C., Donangelo, C.M. (2003). Zinc, oxidative stress and physical activity. Revista de Nutrição, 16(4), 433–441 (in Portuguese; English abstract).
  • 54. Kumar, V., Selby, A., Rankin, D., Patel, R., Atherton, P., Hildebrandt, W., Williams, J., Smith, K., Seynnes, O., Hiscock, N., Rennie, M.J. (2009). Age-related differences in the dose–response relationship of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old men. The Journal of Physiology, 587(1), 211–217.
  • 55. Lockwood, C.M., Roberts, M.D., Dalbo, V.J., Smith-Ryan, A.E.,Kendall, K.L., Moon, J.R., Stout, J.R. (2017). Effects of hydrolyzed whey versus other whey protein supplements on the physiological response to 8 weeks of resistance exercise in college-aged males. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 36(1), 16–27.
  • 56. Lollo, P.C.B, Amaya-Farfan, J., Faria, I.C., Salgado, J.V.V., Chacon-Mikahil, M.P.T., Cruz, A.G., Oliveira, C.A.F., Montagner, P.C., Arruda, M. (2014). Hydrolysed whey protein reduces muscle damage markers in Brazilian elite soccer players compared with whey protein and maltodextrin. A twelve-week inchampionship intervention. International Dairy Journal, 34(1), 19–24.
  • 57. Macnaughton, L.S., Wardle, S.L., Witard, O.C., McGlory, C., Hamilton, D.L., Jeromson, S., Lawrence, C.E., Wallis, G.A., Tipton, K.D. (2016). The response of muscle protein synthesis after whole body resistance exercise is greater after 40 g than 20 gof whey protein ingested. Physiological Reports, 4, UNSP e 12893.
  • 58. Madureira, A.R., Tavares, T., Gomes, A.M., Pintado, M.E., Malcata, F.X. (2010). Invited review: physiological properties of bioactive peptides obtained from whey proteins. Journal of Dairy Science, 93(2), 437–455.
  • 59. Mahan, L.K., Escott-Stump, S. (1998). Proteínas. In: Krause: Alimentos, nutrição e dietoterapia. 9. ed. Roca, São Paulo, pp. 63–76, ISBN: 8572412409 (in Portuguese).
  • 60. Markus, C.R., Oliver, B., Haan, E.H.F. (2002). Whey Protein rich in alfa-lactoalbumin increases the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids and improves cognitive performance in stress-vulnerable subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75(6), 1051–1056.
  • 61. Marshall, K. (2004). Therapeutic applications of whey protein. Alternative Medicine Review, 9(2), 136–156.
  • 62. McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., Katch, V. L. (2014). Nutrição para o esporte e o exercício. 3th edition. Guanabara Koogan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. pp. 33–41, ISBN: 9788527716659 (in Portuguese).
  • 63. Mitchell, C.J., D’Souza, R.F., Fanning, A.C., Poppitt, D., Cameron-Smith, D. (2017). Short communication: Muscle protein synthetic response to microparticulated whey protein in middleaged men. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(6), 4230–4234.
  • 64. Mitchell, W.K., Phillips, B.E., Williams, J.P., Rankin, D., Lund, J.N., Smith, K., Atherton, P.J. (2015). A dose- rather than delivery profile-dependent mechanism regulates the “muscle-full” effect in response to oral essential amino acid intake in young men. Journal for Nutrition, 145(2), 207–214.
  • 65. Moberg, M., Apro, W., Ohlsson, I., Ponten, M., Villanueva, A., Ekblom, B., Blomstrand, E. (2014). Absence of leucine in an essential amino acid supplement reduces activation of mTORC1 signalling following resistance exercise in young females. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 39(2), 183–194.
  • 66. Monteiro, C.A., Cannon, G., Moubarac, J.C., Levy, R.B., Louzada, M.L.C., Jaime, P.C. (2018). The UN decade of nutrition, the NOVA food classification and the trouble with ultra-processing. Public Health Nutrition, 21(1), 5–17.
  • 67. Monteyne, A., Martin, A., Jackson, L., Corrigan, N., Stringer, E., Newey, J., Rumbold, P.L.S, Stevenson, E., James, L.J. (2018). Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal. European Journal of Nutrition, 57(2), 585–592.
  • 68. Moore, D.R., Robinson, M.J., Fry, J.L., Tang, J.E., Glover, E.I., Wilkinson, S.B., Prior, T., Tarnopolsky, M.A., Phillips, S.M. (2009). Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(1), 161–168.
  • 69. Morton, R.W., Murphy, K.T., McKellar, S.R., Schoenfeld, B.J., Henselmans, M., Helms, E., Aragon, A.A., Devries, M.C., Banfield, L., Krieger, J.W., Phillips, S.M. (2018). A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(6), 376–384.
  • 70. Naclerio, F., Larumbe-Zabala, E. (2016). Effects of whey protein alone or as part of a multi ingredient formulation on strength, fat-free mass, or lean body mass in resistance-trained individuals: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(1). 125–137.
  • 71. Niess, A.M., Simon, P. (2007). Response and adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise–the role of reactive oxygen species. Frontiers in Bioscience, 12, 4826–4838.
  • 72. Nogiec, C.D., Kasif, S. (2013). To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements. PLoS One, 8(8), e68751.
  • 73. Oliveira, D.F., Bravo, C.E.C., Tonial, I.B. (2012). Whey of milk: a valuable product. Revista do Instituto de Laticínios Cândido Tostes, 385. 64–71 (in Portuguese).
  • 74. Ostrowski, K., Rohde, T., Asp, S., Schjerling, P., Pedersen, B.K. (1999). Pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 515(1), 287–291.
  • 75. Pal, S., Radavelli-Bagatini, S. (2013). The effects of whey protein on cardiometabolic risk factors. Obesity Reviews, 14(4), 324–343.
  • 76. Pasiakos, S.M., Austin, K.G., Lieberman, H.R., Askew, E.W. (2013). Efficacy and safety of protein supplements for U.S. Armed Forces personnel: consensus statement. The Journal of Nutrition, 143(11), 1811S-1814S.
  • 77. Petry, E.R., Cruzat, V.F., Heck, T.G., Leite, J.S., Homem de Bittencourt, P.I. Jr, Tirapegui, J. (2014). Alanyl-glutamine and glutamine plus alanine supplements improve skeletal redox status in trained rats: involvement of heat shock protein pathways. Life Sciences, 94(2), 130–136.
  • 78. Rahbek, S.K., Farup, J., Müller, A.B., Vendelbo, M.H., Holm, L., Jessen, N., Vissing, K. (2014). Effects of divergent resistance exercise contraction mode and dietary supplementation type on anabolic signalling, muscle protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy. Amino Acids, 46(10), 2377–2392.
  • 79. Rigon, T.V., Rossi, R.G. (2012). Who and why use dietary supplements? Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva, 6, 420–426 (in Portuguese).
  • 80. Roberts, J., Zinchenko, A., Suckling, C., Smith, L., Johnstone, J., Henselmans, M. (2017). The short-term effect of high versus moderate protein intake on recovery after strength training in resistance-trained individuals. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14, 44.
  • 81. Rohde, T.M.D, MacLean, D.A., Richter, E.A., Kiens, B., Pedersen, B.K. (1997). Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism, 273(1), E85–E91.
  • 82. Soares, L.L., Pimenta, E.M., Barros, A.F.S., Lessa, L.B., Pussieldi, G.A. (2012). Analysis of serum creatine kinase in athletes in college football after an intermittent session. Motricidade, 8(S2), 439–446 (in Portuguese).
  • 83. Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina do Exercício e do Esporte. (2009). Dietary changes, water replacement, food supplements and drugs: evidence of ergogenic action and potential health risks. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 15(3) (in Portuguese).
  • 84. Stark, M., Lukaszuk, J., Prawitz, A., Salacinski, A. (2012). Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9, 54.
  • 85. Stefanetti, R.J., Lamon, S., Rahbek, S.K., Farup, J., Zacharewicz, E., Wallace, M.A., Vendelbo, M.H., Russell, A.P., Vissing, K. (2014). Influence of divergent exercise contraction mode and whey protein supplementation on atrogin-1, MuRF1, and FOXO1/3A in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(11), 1491–1502.
  • 86. Tahavorgar, A., Vafa, M., Shidfar, F., Gohari, M., Heydari, I. (2014). Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men. Nutrition Research, 34(10), 856–861.
  • 87. Teixeira, F.J., Matias, C.N., Monteiro, C.P., Valamatos, M.J., Reis, J., Tavares, F., Batista, A., Domingos, C., Alves, F., Sardinha, L.B., Phillips, S.M. (2018). Leucine metabolites do not enhance training-induced performance or muscle thickness. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(4), 1020–1028.
  • 88. Tsivitse, S.K., McLoughlin, T.J., Peterson, J.M., Mylona, E., McGregor, S.J., Pizza, F.X. (2003). Downhill running in rats: influence on neutrophils, macrophages, and MyoD+ cells in skeletal muscle. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 90(5–6), 633–638.
  • 89. Uchida, M.C., Nosaka, K., Ugrinowitsch, C., Nosaka K., Aoki M.S. (2009). Effect of bench press exercise intensity on muscle soreness and inflammatory mediators. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(5), 499–507.
  • 90. Van De Vyver, M., Myburgh, K.H. (2012). Cytokine and satellite cell responses to muscle damage: interpretation and possible confounding factors in human studies. Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, 33(3–4), 177–185.
  • 91. Volek, J.S., Volk, B.M., Gómez, A.L., Kunces, L.J., Kupchak, B.R., Freidenreich, D.J., Aristizabal, J.C., Saenz, C., DunnLewis, C., Ballard, K.D., Quann, E.E., Kawiecki, D.L., Flanagan, S.D., Comstock, B.A., Fragala, M.S., Earp, J.E., Fernandez, M.L., Bruno, R.S., Ptolemy, A.S., Kellogg, M.D., Maresh, C.M., Kraemer, W.J. (2013). Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 32(2), 122–135.
  • 92. Waitzberg, D.L, Logullo P. (2006). Proteínas. In Waitzberg, D.L. (Eds.), Nutrição oral, enteral e parenteral na prática clínica, 3th edition. Atheneu, São Paulo, pp. 35–54, ISBN: 9788573792553 (in Portuguese).
  • 93. Wallace, Douglas C. (2011). Genetic and molecular aspects of sport performance. In C. Bouchard, E.P. Hoffman (Eds.), Mitochondrial Medicine in Health and Disease: Interface Between Athletic Performance and Therapeutics, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, Inglaterra, Reino Unido, pp. 14–32.
  • 94. Welch, K.D., Davis, T.Z., Van Eden, M.E., Aust, S.D. (2002). Deleterious iron-mediated oxidation of biomolecules. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 32(7), 577–583.
  • 95. West, D.W., Burd, N.A., Coffey, V.G., Baker, S.K., Burke, L.M., Hawley, J.A., Moore, D.L., Stellingwerff, T., Phillips, S.M. (2011). Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signaling responses after resistance exercise. The American Journal Clinical of Nutrition, 94(3), 795–803.

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.