A review of emotional labour and its nomological network: practical and research implications
This article reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on emotions in the workplace with the goal of addressing four questions: What is emotional labour? What are the antecedents and consequences of emotional labour for workers and for employers? Given the preceding, what recommendations are offered for workers and managers in organisations? What research ąuestions have yet to be explored? In sum, employees engage in emotional labour by managing their emotions so that they are expressing the emotions that are required by their jobs. Antecedents of emotional labour may include: display rules, the emotional demands of jobs, and individual characteristics such as values, self-monitoring, negative affectivity, and emotional intelligence. Emotional labour may contribute to emotional contagion and increased sales for organisations. For employees, depending on the nature of the emotional labour that is performed, it may result in: increased emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, physical health, turnover, role ambiguity, and conflict, and reduced levels of personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and personal authenticity. It is recommended that individuals: find employment that fits with their personal emotional character, build up their personal resilience, and manage their emotions more consciously. For their part, managers should: be more conscious of the fit between the emotional requirements of positions and the emotional temperaments of the candidates that are being evaluated in the selection process, role model psychological presence at work, and provide workers with increased levels of autonomy and control as well as a positive and supportive emotional climate.
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