PL EN


Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2016 | 08 | 2 |
Tytuł artykułu

Dependence between body image and motivation in a group of professional swimmers and track-athletes

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Background: The human body may be investigated on a variety of levels. This paper deals with the issue of self-perception of the body by sportsmen and motivation strategies they use. The aim of the study was twofold: firstly, to determine whether the sports discipline affects satisfaction with one’s own body and the level of motivation; and secondly, to establish if the type of sports motivation is dependent on the body image. Material and methods: The subject group comprised athletes (n = 42) and swimmers (n = 35). The subjects completed questionnaires. The research tools included the Body Esteem Scale (BES) by Franzoi & Shields and the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ) by Gill and Dieter. Results: The results were analysed separately for each gender (according to the applied tool (BES)). Significant differences in self-perception of the body occurred in males in terms of the sports discipline, and the athletes perceived themselves better (Physical attractiveness [p < 0.01; F(8,33)] Body strength [p < 0.05; F(4,17)] Physical condition [p < 0.02; F(5,63)]). The differences did not occur in the female group. The same applies to the whole study group in terms of the level of motivation. Regression analysis demonstrated that the body image was a significantly independent variable in the case of motivation focused on the aim (females [the sexual attractiveness subscale] β = 0.46; males [the physical condition subscale] β = 0.35). In terms of the sports discipline, there are significant differences in satisfaction with the body; however, they occur only among males. The subject athletes expressed greater satisfaction with their bodies. Conclusions: The body image, perceived among female subjects as an object (also sexual), affects the level of sports motivation focused on the aim. For males, the aspect of body capability, i.e. physical condition, is the factor responsible for an increase in the motivation focused on the aim.
Słowa kluczowe
Twórcy
autor
  • The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
autor
  • The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
Bibliografia
  • [1] Robak A. Rozwojowe aspekty doświadczania ciała w okresie dzieciństwa [Developmental aspects of experiencing the body during childhood]. In: Ziółkowska B, Cwojdzińska A, Chołody M, eds. Ciało w kulturze i nauce [Body in culture and science]. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar; 2009, 9-16. Polish.
  • [2] Głębocka A. Niezadowolenie z wyglądu a rozpaczliwa kontrola wagi [Appearance dissatisfaction in relations to desperate weight control]. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Impuls; 2010. Polish.
  • [3] Swami V, Steadman L, Tove M. A comparison of body size ideals, body dissatisfaction, and media influence between female track athletes, martial artists, and non-athletes. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2009;10:609-614.
  • [4] Tatagelo G, Ricciardelli L. A qualitative study of preadolescent boys’ and girls’ body image: Gendered ideals and sociocultural influences. Body Image. 2013;10:591-598.
  • [5] Henderson-King E, Henderson-King D. Media effects on women’s body esteem: Social and individual difference factors. Int J Sport Med. 2007;28(4):340-345.
  • [6] Kobierecka A. Emocjonalny aspect obrazu ciała a ocean relacji z rodzicami u młodych kobiet [Emotional aspect of body image in relation to the assessment of relationships with parents in young women]. Przegląd Psychologiczny. 2012;55(4):383-395. Polish.
  • [7] Carraca E. et al. Dysfunctional body investment vs body dissatisfaction: Relations with well-being and controlled motivations for obesity treatment. Motiv Emot. 2011;35:423-434.
  • [8] Raczyńska B. Zaburzenia żywieniowe u zawodniczek [Eating disorders in female competitors]. Sport Wyczynowy. 2001;5-6:41-48. Polish.
  • [9] Zarek A. Porównanie subiektywnej oceny ciała mężczyzn i kobiet w wieku 19-25 lat [Comparison of subjective body esteem of men and women in age of 19-25]. Roczniki Pomorskiej Akademii Medycznej w Szczecinie. 2007;53(3):26-33. Polish.
  • [10] Sudani A, Budzyńska K, Sileńska A. Obraz ciała a aktywność fizyczna uczniów i studentów [Body image in relations to physical activity of schoolchildren and college students]. Rozprawy Naukowe Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu. 2015;48:151-155. Polish.
  • [11] Dinucci J, Finkenberg M, McCune S, Donice E, Mayo T. Analysis of body esteem of female collegiate athletes. Percept Motor Skill. 1994;78:315-319.
  • [12] Homan K, Tylka T. Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image. Body Image. 2014;11(2):101-108.
  • [13] Fortier M, et al. A moderated mediation of motivation on physical activity in the context of the physical activity counselling randomized control trial. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2011;12:71-78.
  • [14] Moran C, Dieferendorff J, Kim T, Liu Z. A profile approach to self-determination theory motivations at work. J Vocation Behav. 2012;81:354-363.
  • [15] Hanrahan S, Cerin E. Gender, level of participation, and type of sport: Differences in achievement goal orientation and attributional style. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12:508-512.
  • [16] Londsdale C, Hodge K, Hargaeves E. Comparing sport motivation scales: A response to Pelletier et al. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2014;15:446-452.
  • [17] Gillet N, Vallerand R, Amoura S, Baldes B. Influence of coaches’ autonomy support on athletes’ motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2010;11:155-161.
  • [18] Ryba B. Motywacja działań różnych grup środowiska sportowego [Motivation of activities among different groups of sports community]. Sport Wyczynowy. 2001;9-10:62-69. Polish.
  • [19] Homan K, Tylka T. Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship. Body Image. 2014;11:101-108.
  • [20] Franzoi S, Shields S. The Body Esteem Scale: multidimensional structure and sex differences in a college population. J Personal Assess. 1984;48(2):173-178.
  • [21] Franzoi S, Herzog E. The Body Esteem Scale: A convergent and discriminant validity study. J Personal Assess. 1986;50(1):24-31.
  • [22] Lipowska M, Lipowski M. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale. Health Psychology Report. 2013;1:72-81. Polish.
  • [23] Gill D, Deeter T. Development of the Sport orientation questionnaire. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 1988;59(3):191-202.
  • [24] Gill D, Deeter T, Dzewaltowski D. The relationship of competitiveness and achievement orientation to participation in sport and non-sport activities. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1988;10;139-150.
  • [25] Sokolowski A, Sagan A. Analysis of data in marketing and public opinion research. In: Examples of statistical inference with the use of Statistica. Warszawa: Statsoft; 1999, 8-12.
  • [26] Wheeler D, Vassar M, Halle W. A gender-based measurement in variance study of the sociocultural attitudes toward appearance questionnaire-3. Body Image. 2011;8;168-172
  • [27] McKinley N. Gender differences in undergraduates’ body esteem: the mediating effect of objectified body consciousness and actual/ideal weight discrepancy. Sex Roles. 1998;39(1-2):113-115.
  • [28] Fredrickson B, Robert T. Objectification theory – toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychol Women Q. 1997;21:173-206
  • [29] Miner-Rubino K, Twenge J, Fredrickson B. Trait self-objectification in women: Affective and personality correlates. J Res Personal. 2002;36:147-172
  • [30] Wasylkiw L, Emms A, Meuse R, Poirier K. Are all models created equal? A content analysis of women in advertisements of fitness versus fashion magazines? Body Image. 2009;6:137-140.
  • [31] Lipowska M, Lipowski M. Poziom narcyzmu jako moderator relacji pomiędzy obiektywnymi wymiarami ciała a stosunkiem do własnej cielesności młodych mężczyzn [Narcissism level as the modifier of relations between objective body size and attitude towards own corporality in young males]. Polskie Forum Psychologiczne. 2015;20/1:31-46. Polish.
  • [32] Bukowska K, Marks M. Lęk i motywacja osiągnięć a wynik sportowy lekkoatletów wybranych konkurencji [Anxiety and aim motivation in relation to sports result of athletes in specific disciplines]. Rozprawy Naukowe Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu. 2012;38:33-34. Polish.
  • [33] Kochan-Wójcik M., Piskorz J. Zmiany w zakresie postrzegania i oceny własnego ciała wśród kobiet od okresu dojrzewania do dorosłości [Changes in perception and esteem of own body among women from adolescence to maturity]. Psychologia Rozwojowa. 2010;15/3:21-32. Polish.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.agro-585e3504-6f0a-4dd5-9b6b-eb864dab96a2
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.