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Occurrence, characteristics and control of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in pigeons

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Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious and devastating viral disease of poultry and other birds that has a worldwide distribution. ND in pigeons is called paramyxovirosis and is caused by antigenic “pigeon variant” of the virus (pigeon paramyxovirus type 1, PPMV-1). During PPMV-1 infections, central nervous system symptoms and sometimes high mortality are observed. In the case of infection with viscerotropic strains which exhibit specific affinity for the kidneys, the first observed sign is polyuria, and neural symptoms appear only in individual birds in the flock. Due to the similarity of symptoms of paramyxovirosis to the pigeon herpes virus infection (PHV), sodium chloride poisoning, overdose of ronidazole or vitamin B1 deficiency, it is necessary to perform laboratory tests to make a correct diagnosis. After virus isolation PPMV-1 can be detected initially by haemagglutination assay (HA). PPMV-1 can be confirmed by conventional serological tests such a haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) or molecular-based techniques. In the prophylaxis of paramyxovirosis in pigeons, inactivated vaccines are used, administered by subcutaneous injection in various prevention programs. However, vaccination should be only one component of a strategy of PPMV-1 control, on a par with effective biosecurity and proper, effective methods of prevention and diagnostics of paramyxovirosis.
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  • Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  • Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
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