Lead-induced oxidative stress, antioxidant defence system and their response to administration of L-arginine in rats with different resistance to hypoxia
The influence of L-arginine and Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) on lead-induced oxidative stress in kidneys of rats with different resistance to hypoxia was studied. The animals were exposed to lead nitrate (3.6 mg/kg, daily) for 30 d and treated with L- arginine (600 mg/kg) or L-NNA (35 mg/kg) 30 min before each injection of lead nitrate. Lead exposure led to a significant increase in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in rats with high resistance to hypoxia indicating that lead induced renal oxidative stress. Treatment with L-arginine was effective in decreasing TBARS level for this group of animals. L-arginine was ineffective against lead-induced oxidative stress when given to rats with low resistance to hypoxia. In contrast, administration of L- NNA provided significant prooxidative effect on renal lead-induced oxidative stress in rats with low and high resistance to hypoxia. Renal antioxidant defence system remained sensitive to lead-induced oxidative stress and any of the treatments bv L-arginine and L- NNA.
- 1. Ahamed M, Siddiqui M.K.: Low level lead exposure and oxidative stress: current opinions. Clin Chim Acta 2007, 383, 57-64.
- 2. Bradford M.M.: A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976, 72, 248-254.
- 3. Chiueh C.C.: Neuroprotective properties of nitric oxide. Ann NY Acad Sci 1999, 890, 301-311.
- 4. Dursun N., Arifoglu C., Süer C., Keskinol L.: Blood pressure relationship to nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, renal function, and renal blood flow in rats exposed to low lead levels. Biol Trace Elem Res 2005, 104, 141- 149.
- 5. Flora S.J., Flora G., Saxena G., Mishra M.: Arsenic and lead induced free radical generation and their reversibility following chelation. Cell Mol Biol 2007, 53, 26-47.
- 6. Flora S.J., Pande M., Kannan G.M., Mehta A.: Lead induced oxidative stress and its recovery following coadministration of melatonin or N-acetylcysteine during chelation with succimer in male rats. Cell Mol Biol 2004, 50, 543-551.
- 7. Förstermann U.: Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in vascular disease. Pflugers Arch 2010, 459, 923-939.
- 8. Glatzle D., Vuilleumier J. P., Weber F., Decker K.: Glutathione reductase test with whole blood, a convenient procedure for the assessment of the riboflavin status in human. Experientia 1974, 30, 665-667.
- 9. Gupta A., Chander V., Sharma S., Chopra K.: Sodium nitroprusside and L-arginine attenuates ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced oxidative renal injur, in rats. Toxicology 2007, 232, 183-191.
- 10. Hogg N., Kalyanaraman B.: Nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999, 1411, 378- 384.
- 11. Hummel S.G., Fischer A.J., Martin S.M., Schafer F.Q., Buettner G.R.: Nitric oxide as a cellular antioxidant: a little goes a long way. Free Radic Biol Med 2006, 40, 501-506.
- 12. Hunt C., Sim J.E., Sullivan S.J., Featherstone T., Golden W., Kapp-Herr C.V., Hock R.A., Gomez R.A., Parsian A.J., Spitz D.R.: Genomic instability and catalase gene amplification induced by chronic exposure to oxidative stress. Cancer Res 1998, 58, 3986-3992.
- 13. Kamyshnikov V.S.: Reference book on clinic and biochemical researches and laboratory diagnostics, Ed. MEDpress-uniform, Moscow, 2004.
- 14. Kelley E.E., Wagner B.A., Buettner G.R., Burns C.P.: Nitric oxide inhibits iron-induced lipid peroxidation in HL-60 cells. Arch Biochem Biophvs 1999, 370, 97-104.
- 15. Klahr S.: Can L-arginine manipulation reduce renal disease? Semin Nephrol 1999, 19, 304-309.
- 16. Koroliuk M.A., Ivanova L.I., Majorova I.G., Tokarev V.E.: A method of determining catalase activity. Lab Delo 1988, 1, 16-19.
- 17. Kostiuk V.A., Potapovich A.I., Kovaleva Zh.V.: A simple and sensitive method of determination of superoxide dismutase activity based on the reaction of quercetine oxidation. Vopr Med Khim 1990, 36, 88-91.
- 18. Kurhalyuk N., Tkachenko H.: L-arginine modulates mitochondrial function in rat liver during physical training. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2007, 51, 641-647.
- 19. Moin V.M.: A simple and specific method for determining glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes. Lab Delo 1986, 12, 724-727.
- 20. Nemsadze K., Sanikidze T., Ratiani L., Gabunia L., Sharashenidze T.: Mechanisms of lead-induced poisoning. Georgian Med News 2009, 172, 92-96.
- 21. Patra R.C., Swarup D., Dwivedi S.K.: Antioxidant effects of α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and L-methionine on lead induced oxidative stress to the liver, kidney and brain in rats. Toxicology 2001, 162, 81-88.
- 22. Patrick L.: Lead toxicity part II: the role of free radical damage and the use of antioxidants in the pathology and treatment of lead toxicity. Altern Med Rev 2006, 11, 114-127.
- 23. Rubbo H., Trostchansky A., O'Donnell V.B.: Peroxynitrite-mediated lipid oxidation and nitration: mechanisms and consequences. Arch Biochem Biophvs 2009, 484, 167-172.
- 24. Saleh S., El-Demerdash E.: Protective effects of L- arginine against cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress and toxicity: role of nitric oxide. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2005, 97, 91-97.
- 25. Sivaprasad R., Nagaraj M., Varalakshmi P.: Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. Arch Toxicol 2002, 76, 437-441.
- 26. Tkachenko H., Kurhalyuk N., Khabrovska L., Kamiński P.: Effect of L-arginine on lead induced oxidative stress in the blood of rats with different resistance to hypoxia. Pol J Food Nutr Sci 2007, 57, 387-394.
- 27. Valko M., Morris H., Cronin M.T.: Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem 2005, 12, 1161-1208.
- 28. Violi F., Marino R., Milite M.T., Loffredo L.: Nitric oxide and its role in lipid peroxidation. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999, 15, 283-288.
- 29. Wang L., Wang Z., Liu J.: Protective effect of N- acetylcysteine on experimental chronic lead nephrotoxicity in immature female rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 2010, 29, 581-591.
- 30. White C.R., Parks D.A., Patel R.P., Shelton J., Tarpey M.M., Freeman B.A., Darley-Usmar V.M.: L-arginine inhibits xanthine oxidase-dependent endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia. FEBS Lett 2004, 12, 561, 94-98.
- 31. Yiin S.J., Lin T.H.: Lead-catalyzed peroxidation of essential unsaturated fatty acid. Biol Trace Elem Res 1995, 50, 167-172.
- 32. Zar J.H.: Biostatistical Analysis. Fourth edition. Prentice- Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New York, USA, 1999.