Determinants of self-rated health among the elderly living in a big city environment
Our paper aims to analyze the impact of factors determining self-rated health (SRH) at an early elderly age. The research study was conducted in a demonstrative area of the CINDI WHO program in the Górna district of Łódź. The program has been running since 1991. 768 study subjects aged 65-74 were qualified for the statistical analysis. In a multiple-factor logistic regression model, we found a statistically significant impact of the following variables on poor self-rated health at the confidence interval (CI) of 95%. Tertiary and secondary education contributed to a lower chance of poor SRH compared to primary education. A low number of medical consultations per year contributed to a lower chance of poor SRH compared to more than 10 medical consultations per year. High body mass index contributed to a higher chance of poor SRH compared to BMI<25. Coronary heart disease contributed to a higher chance of poor SRH compared to the lack of this disease. On the basis of a multiple logistic regression model, we found that good SRH depended on sex (less likely among females), education (more likely among university graduates), the number of reported medical consultations (more likely if fewer than 10 per year), BMI (more likely for overweight, but less likely for obese subjects), diabetes (negative impact), hypertriglicerydemia (negative impact), and coronary heart disease (negative impact). The subjective perception of one’s own health status is strongly correlated with the health results of the early elderly subpopulation in a big city environment.
- 1. BENYAMINI Y., LEVENTHAL E., LEVENTHAL H. Gender differences in processing information for making self-assessments of health. Psychosomatic Medicine 62, 354, 2000.
- 2. BENYAMINI Y., BLUMSTEIN T., LUSKY A., MODAN B. Gender differences in the self-rated health mortality association: is it poor self-rated health that predicts mortality or excellent self-rated health that predicts survival? The Gerontologist 43, 396, 2003.
- 3. ANSTEY K., LUSZCZ M., ANDREW G. Psychosocial factors, gender and late-life mortality. Ageing International 27, (2), 73, 2002.
- 4. ERIKSSON I., UNDEN A., ELOFSSON S. Self-rated health. Comparisons between three different measures. Results from a population study. International Journal of Epidemiology 30, 326, 2001.
- 5. KAPLAN G., BARELL V., LUSKY A. Subjective state of health and survival in elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology 43, (4), 114, 1988.
- 6. LEE Y. The predictive value of self assessed general, physical, and mental health on functional decline and mortality in older adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54, 123, 2000.
- 7. FRANKLIN S., LARSON M., KHAN S., WONG N., LEIP E., KANNEL W., LEVY D. Does the relation of blood pressure to coronary heart disease risk change with aging? The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 103, 1245, 2001.
- 8. KANNEL W. Some lesson in cardiovascular epidemiology from Framingham. American Journal of Cardiology 37, 269, 1976.
- 9. BOBAK M., MARMOT M. East-West mortality divide and its potential explanations: proposed research agenda. British Medical Journal 312, 421, 1996.
- 10. KANNEL W. Elevated systolic blood pressure as a cardiovascular risk factor. American Journal of Cardiology 85, 251, 2000.
- 11. HEIAT A., VACCARINE V., KRUMHOLZ H. An evidence-based assessment of federal guidelines for overweight and obesity as they apply to elderly persons. Archives of Internal Medicine 161, 1194, 2001.
- 12. BERLIN J., COLDITZ G. A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology 132, 612, 1990.
- 13. CERIELLO A. Acute hyperglycaemia: a ‘new’ risk factor during myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal 26, (4), 328, 2005.
- 14. LEPARSKI E., NUSSEL E. Protocol and guidelines for monitoring and evaluation procedure CINDI – Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention Programme, Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris, Tokyo, 60, 1987.
- 15. AL-WINDI A. The relations between symptoms, somatic and psychiatric conditions, life satisfaction and perceived health. A primary care based study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 3, (28), 2005.
- 16. BURSTROM B., FREDLUND P. Self-rated health: is it as good a predictor of subsequent mortality among adults in lower as well as in higher social classes? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55, 836, 2001.
- 17. HEISTARO S., JOUSILAHTI P., LAHELMA E., VARTIAINEN E., PUSKA P. Self-rated health and mortality: a long-term prospective study in eastern Finland. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55, 227, 2001.
- 18. KAPLAN G., KEIL J. Socio-economic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature. Circulation 88, (1), 1973, 1993.
- 19. PINQUART M., SORENSEN S. Gender differences in selfconcept and psychological well-being in old age. A metaanalysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 56, 195, 2001.
- 20. MOSSEY J., SHAPIRO E. Self-rated health: a predictor of mortality among the elderly. American Journal of Public Health 72, (8), 800, 1982.
- 21. SANTIAGO L., NOVAES C., MATTOS I. Self-rated health (SRH) as a predictor of mortality in elderly men living in a medium-size city in Brazil. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 51, (3), 88, 2010.
- 22. TOBIASZ-ADAMCZYK B., BRZYSKI P., KOPACZ M. Health attitudes and behaviour as predictors of self-rated health in relation to mortality patterns (17-year follow-up in a Polish elderly population – Cracow study). Central European Journal of Public Health 16, (2), 47, 2008.
- 23. HALIK J., BORKOWSKA-KALWAS T., PĄCZKOWSKA M. Polish population ageing and its implications for social and health policies. A study report, Warsaw, pp. 1-44, 2000 [In Polish].
- 24. HALIK J. (Ed.). The elderly in Poland. Social and health effects of population ageing. The Institute of Public Affairs, Warsaw, pp. 1-173, 2002 [In Polish].
- 25. BIEŃ B. The health situation and fitness of the elderly. [In:] SYNAK B. (Ed.). The Polish elderliness. Gdansk University Press: Gdańsk, pp. 35-62, 2002 [In Polish].
- 26. HERMAN D.R., SOLOMONS N.W., MENDOZA I., QURESHI A.K. Self-rated health and its relationship to functional status and well-being in a group of elderly Guatemalan subjects. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10, (3), 176, 2001.
- 27. KIVINEN P., HALONEN P., ERONEN M., NISSINEN A. Self-rated health, physician-rated health and associated factors among elderly men: the Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Age and Ageing 27, (1), 41, 1998.
- 28. SZAFLARSKI M., CUBBINS L. Self-reported health in Poland and the United States: a comparative analysis of demographic, family and socioeconomic influences. An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine 8, (1), 5, 2004.
- 29. NAZANIN H., PAN A., YE X., WANG J., QI Q., LIU Y., LI H., YU Z., LIN X., FRANCO O. Self-rated health in middle- aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, determinants and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors. BMC Public Health 9, 368, 2009.
- 30. CRIMMINS E. Trends in the health of the elderly. Annual Review of Public Health 25, 79, 2004