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2014 | 59 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

A new enigmatic ant genus from late Eocene Danish Amber and its evolutionary and zoogeographic significance

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Usomyrma mirabilis gen. et sp. nov., belonging to the tribe Leptomyrmecini of the subfamily Dolichoderinae, are described based on two males from the late Eocene Danish Amber. Usomyrma differs from Leptomyrmex by a set of plesiomorphic and autapomorphic features. Distinctly plesiomorphic characters include the fore wing venation, i.e., the presence of the well developed pterostigma, the wide closed cell 3r and the big central closed cell that formed by the fusion of the cells (1+2r)+mcu, and the structure of mandibles, which are elongate-triangular, with a well developed masticatory margin that, unlike Leptomyrmex, possesses a set of well developed, relatively long and sharp teeth. The most distinctive autapomorphy of Usomyrma is the structure of the antennae: although it remains 13-segmented, its second funicular segment is extremely elongate, much longer than any other segment, including the apical one. The generic composition of the tribe Leptomyrmecini is partly reassessed compared to the previously published data. We propose to establish a new informal Leptomyrmex genus-group within tribe Leptomyrmecini, including in it the extant genus Leptomyrmex, two fossil (Usomyrma gen. nov., Leptomyrmula) and a “Leptomyrmex” male from the Dominican Amber that probably represents a third extinct genus. Finally, a new, alternative evolutionary and zoogeographic scenario for the Leptomyrmex genus-group is proposed. We suggest that fore wing venation of Usomyrma is ancestral to other genera of this group. The next evolutionary step was the complete reduction of the closed central cell in Leptomyrmula, while conserving the pterostigma and a wide closed cell 3r. Then, in the modern Leptomyrmex males the pterostigma was reduced and the cell 3r became very narrow. Finally, the most apomorphic condition is illustrated by the venation of “Leptomyrmex” male from the Dominican Amber, which has no pterostigma and pterostigmal appendages, combined with the absence of the closed cell 3r. As a result, we suppose that the ancestor of Leptomyrmex might penetrate from Eurasia to Australia via South-East Asia, and then Leptomyrmex penetrated to South America, where the most advanced morphologically form (i.e., “Leptomyrmex” male from the Dominican Amber) arose, but extinct in Miocene.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
59
Numer
4
Opis fizyczny
p.931-939,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Biologicheskij Fakultet, Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet imeni M.V. Lomonosova, Vorobevy gory, 119899, Moskva, Russia
autor
  • Shmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, B.Khmmelnitskogo str., 15, 01-601, Kiev-30, Ukraine
  • Biologicheskij Fakultet, Sankt-Peterburgskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet, Universitetskaja Naberezhnaja, 7/2, 199034, Sankt-Peterburg, Russia
Bibliografia
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  • Baroni Urbani, C. 1980. The first fossil species of the Australian ant genus Leptomyrmex in amber from the Dominican Republic. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie B 62: 1–10.
  • Baroni Urbani, C. and Wilson, E.O. 1987. The fossil members of the ant tribe Leptomyrmecini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche 94: 1–8.
  • Dlussky, G.M. [Dlusskij, G.M.] 1999. New ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Formicidae) from Canadian Amber [in Russian]. Paleontologičeskij žurnal 33: 73–76.
  • Dlussky, G.M. 2002. Ants of the genus Dolichoderus Lund (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Baltic and Rovno Ambers. Paleontological Journal 36: 50–63.
  • Dlussky, G.M. [Dlusskij, G.M.] 2008. New species of ants of the genus Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Late Eocene Ambers of Europe [in Russian]. Vestnik Zoologii 42: 497–514.
  • Dlussky, G.M. 2012. New fossil ants of the subfamily Myrmeciinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Germany. Paleontological Journal 46: 288–292.
  • Dlussky, G.M. and Perfilieva, K.S. 2003. Paleogene ants of the genus Archimyrmex Cockerel, 1923 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmeciinae). Paleontological Journal 37: 39–47.
  • Dlussky, G.M. and Rasnitsyn, A.P. 2002. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of formation Green river and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America. Russian Entomological Journal 11: 411–436.
  • Dlussky, G.M. [Dlusskij, G.M.] and Rasnitsyn, A.P. [Rasnicyn, A.P.] 2007. Paleontological record and stages of ants evolution [in Russian]. Uspehi Sovremennoj Biologii 2: 118–134.
  • Emery, C. 1891. Le formishe dell’Ambra Siciliana nel Museo Mineralogico dell’Universita di Bologna. Memoire della Reale Accademia delle Scienza dell’Instituto di Bologna, Serie 5 1: 567–594.
  • Emery, C. 1913. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae, Subfam. Dolichoderinae. In: P. Wystman (ed.), Genera Insectorum. Fascicule 137. 50 pp. V. Verteneuil et L. Desmet, Imrimeurs-Édireurs, Bruxelles.
  • Lucky, A. and Ward, P.S. 2010. Taxonomic revision of the ant genus Leptomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 2688: 1–67.
  • McKenna, M.C. 1983. Cenozoic paleogeography of North Atlantic land bridges. In: M.H.P. Bott, S. Saxov, M. Talvani, and J. Thiede (eds.), Structure and Development of the Greenland-Scotland Bridge: New Concepts and Methods, 351–395. Plenum, New York.
  • Sanmartín, I. and Ronquist, F. 2004. Southern hemisphere biogeography inferred by event-based models: plant versus animal patterns. Systematic Biology 53: 216–243.
  • Shattuck, S.O. 1992. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 21: 1–181.
  • Shattuck, S.O. 1995. Generic-level relationships within the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 20: 217–228.
  • Sinitsyn, V.M. [Sinicyn, V.M.] 1962. Paleogeografiâ Azii. 266 pp. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Sinitsyn, V.M. [Sinicyn, V.M.] 1965. Drevnie klimaty Evrazii. Čast’ 1. Paleogen i Neogen. 167 pp. Izdatel’stvo Leningradskogo Universiteta, Leningrad.
  • Skalski, A.W. and Veggiani, A. 1990. Fossil resin in Sicily and the Northern Apennines; geology and organic content. Prace Muzeum Ziemi 41: 37–49.
  • Smith, D.J. and Shattuck, S. 2009. Six new, unusually small ants of the genus Leptomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 2142: 57–68.
  • Tiffney, B.H. 1985. The Eocene North Atlantic land bridge: its importance in Tertiary and modern phytogeography of the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 66: 243–273.
  • Wheeler, W.M. 1915. The Australian honey-ants of the genus Leptomyrmex Mayr. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 51: 255–286.
  • Wheeler, W.M. 1934. A second revision of the ants of the genus Leptomyrmex Mayr. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 77: 69–118.
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  • Wilson, E.O. 1985b. Ants of the Dominican amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). 3. The subfamily Dolichoderinae. Psyche 92: 17–37
  • Ward, P.S., Brady, S.G., Fisher, B.L., and Schultz, T.R. 2010. Phylogeny and biogeography of dolichoderine ants: effects of data partitioning and relict taxa on historical inference. Systematic Biology 59: 342–362.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
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