Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2010 | 40 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Invasion of an exotic fish - common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Ganga River, India and its impacts

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Background. The Ganga River (Ganges) is known of its rich fish diversity which is adversely affected by degrading environmental and ecological conditions. There are more than 300 exotic fish species in India. Many of them (particularly Cyprinus carpio) escaped from confinement and are now present in the Ganga River, challenging its ecological equilibrium. The aim of this project was to study the population characteristics of Cyprinus carpio (i.e., the abundance, size range, food and feeding, gonado-somatic index (GSI), gonad maturity stage, maturity and breeding) and the altered fishery dynamics. Materials and Methods. The commercially caught fishes, including the exotic ones, were identified, examined and measured. Important indices such as: the abundance index of exotic fishes, the gonado-somatic index (IG), as well as the gonad maturity stage of the escapee C. carpio were determined. The gut content was also analyzed to identify food items and thereafter the food richness, diet breadth, and gut repletion index (GRI%) were calculated using the Simpson’s diversity index. Results. C. carpio introduced about sixty years ago for aquaculture has now been found to invade into the Ganga, the largest river of the country contributing significantly to the fishery. The abundance index of C. carpio ranged from 12.2% to 45.5 % in 250 km long river stretch of the Ganga River flowing along Kanpur to Varanasi in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The gut content analysis revealed the presence of Eichhornia (9.8%), Pistia (11.6%), Nymphaea (8.5%), annelids worms (7.8%), algae (20.2%), mud and detritus (14.8%). The calculated diet breadth ranged from 0.82% to 0.91%; food richness ranged from 12 to 16, and the gut repletion index (GRI%) was 100% at different sampling sites. Mature females represented all the six reproductive stages with varying gonadosomatic index (IG) (0.5 to 30) in different catches. Presence of spent, ripe, and mature females was recorded. Conclusion. Abundance of exotic fish primarily C. carpio and Oreochromis niloticus in the fishery of the Ganga River was observed. The gonado-somatic index (IG) and the presence of all the six gonadal stages confirmed that C. carpio established its breeding population. The dominant catch of exotic fishes negatively impacted on the important indigenous fishes particularly Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala). The change in dynamics of the fishery due to the presence of common carp attracted attention to conserve rich indigenous germplasm facing threats of shifting from their natural habitats.
Opis fizyczny
  • National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Canal Ring Road, P.O.Dilkusha, Lucknow-226002, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Begon M., Harper J.C., Townsed C.R. 1986. Ecology, individuals, populations and communications. International Biological Programme. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford and London.
  • Bilgrami K.S. 1991. Biological profile of the Ganga: Zooplankton, fish, birds and other minor fauna. Pp. 81–94. In: Krishna Murti C.R., Bilgrami K.S., Das T.M., Mathur R.P. (eds.) The Ganga: A scientific study. Northern Book Centre, New Delhi.
  • Britton J.R., Boar R.R., Grey J., Foster J., Lugonzo J., Harper D.M. 2007. From introduction to fishery dominance: the initial impacts of the invasive carp Cyprinus carpio in lake Naivasha, Kenya, 1999 to 2006. Journal of Fish Biology 71 (Suppl.): 239–257. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01669.x.
  • Casal C.M.V. 2006. Global documentation food fish introductions: the growing crisis and recommendations for action. Biological Invasions 8: 3–11. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-005-0231-3.
  • Das M.K. 2007. Environment and fish health: a holistic assessment of inland fisheries in India. Pp.137–151. In: Goswami U.C. (ed.) Natural and anthropogenic hazards on fish and fisheries. Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi.
  • De Silva S.S., Abery N.W., Nguyen T.T.T. 2007. Endemic freshwater finfish of Asia: distribution and conservation status. Diversity and Distributions 13: 172–184. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2006.00311.x.
  • De Silva S.S., Nguyen T.T.T., Abery N.W., Amarasinghe U.S. 2006. An evaluation of the role and impacts of alien finfish in Asian inland aquaculture. Aquaculture Research 37: 1–17. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2005.01369.x.
  • Dey M.M., Paraguas F.J., Bhatta R., Alam F., Weimin M., Piumsombun S., Koeshandrajana S., Dung L.T.C., Sang N.V. 2005. Carp production in Asia: Past trends and present status in Asia. Pp. 6–15. In: Penman D.J., Gupta M.V., Dey M.M. (eds.) Carp genetic resources for aquaculture in Asia. Working Papers. World Fish Centre No. 16345.
  • Fisher W., Bianchi G. 1984. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Vol. 2. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing. Area 51). FAO, Rome.
  • Froese R., Pauly D. (eds.) 2004. FishBase. [version 06/2004]
  • García-Berthou E. 2007. The characteristics of invasive fishes: what has been learned so far? Journal of Fish Biology 71 (Suppl. D): 33–55. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01668.x.
  • Gopal B., Sah M. 1993. Conservation and management of rivers in India—case-study of the river Yamuna. Environmental Conservation 20 (3): 243–254.
  • Gopal B., Zutshi D.P. 1998. Fifty years of hydrobiological research in India. Hydrobiologia 384 (1–3): 267–290. DOI: 10.1023/A:1003280426677.
  • Jena J.K., Ayyappan S., Arvindakshan P.K., Dash B., Singh S.K., Muduli H.K. 2002. Evaluation of production performance is carp polyculture with different stocking densities and species combinations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 18 (3): 165–171. DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0426.2002.00302.x.
  • Jhingran V.G. 1975. Fish and fisheries of India. Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Dehli.
  • Kapoor D., Dayal R., Ponniah A.G. 2002. Fish biodiversity of India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, India.
  • Khanna D.R., Sarkar P., Ashutosh Gautam, Bhutiani R. 2007. Fish scales as bio-indicator of water quality of River Ganga. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 134 (1–3): 153–160. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-007-9606-5.
  • Koehn J.D. 2004. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) as powerful invaders of Australian waterways. Freshwater Biology 49 (7): 882–894. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2004.01232.x.
  • Lakra W.S., Singh A.K., Ayyappan S. (eds.) 2008. Fish introductions in India: Status, potential and challenges. Narendra Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  • Lakra W.S., Singh A.K., Mahanta P.C. (eds.) 2009. Fish genetic resources. Narendra Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  • Mabuchi H., Senou H., Nishida M. 2008. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals cryptic large-scale invasion of non-native genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Japan. Molecular Ecology 17 (3): 796–809. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03626.x.
  • Nagelkerke L.A.J., Sibbing F.A. 1996. Reproductive segregation among the Barbus intermedius complex of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. An example of intralacustrine speciation. Journal of Fish Biology 49 (6): 1244–1266. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb01793.x.
  • Parameswaran S., Alikunhi K.H, Sukamaran K.K. 1972. Observation on the maturation, fecundity and breeding of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. Indian Journal of Fisheries 19: 110–124.
  • Ponniah A.G., Sarkar U.K. (eds.) (2000) Fish biodiversity of north east India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow. NATP Publication No. 2.
  • Rao R.J. 2001. Biological resources of the Ganga River, India. Hydrobiologia 458 (1–3): 159–168. DOI: 10.1023/A:1013173204091.
  • Ross L.G., Martinez Palacios C.A., Morales E.J. 2008. Developing native fish species for aquaculture: the interacting demands of biodiversity, sustainable aquaculture and livelihoods. Aquaculture Research 39 (7): 675–683. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01920.x.
  • Rowe D.K. 2007. Exotic fish introductions and the decline of water clarity in small North Island, New Zealand lakes: a multi-species problem. Hydrobiologia 583 (1): 345–358. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-007-0646-1.
  • Sarkar U.K., Bain M.B. 2006. Priority habitats for the conservation of large river fish in the Ganges River basin. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 17 (4): 349–359. DOI: 10.1002/aqc.782.
  • Shyam Sunder 1998. Role of exotic fishes in India uplands. Pp. 301–314. In: Ponniah A.G., Das P., Verma S.R. (eds.) Fish genetics and biodiversity conservation. Nature Conservators. Muzaffarpur, India. Publication No. 5.
  • Singh A.K., Lakra W.S. 2006. Alien fish species in India: Impact and emerging scenario. Journal of Ecophysiology and Occupational Health 6 (3–4): 165–174.
  • Singh A.K., Pathak A.K., Salim Sultan, Mishra A., Lakra W.S. 2008a. Spread of exotic fishes in river Yamuna. Pp. 93–104. In: Lakra W.S., Singh A.K., Ayyappan S. (eds.) Fish introductions in India: status potential and challenges. Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi, India.
  • Singh A.K., Lakra W.S., Mishra A. 2008b. Spread and colonisation of alien fish species in open waters: a reliable indicator of aquatic health. Aquaculture Health International 2008 (13): 40–42.
  • Singh P.B., Singh V. 2008. Pesticide bioaccumulation and plasma sex steroids in fishes during breeding phase from north India. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 25 (3): 342–350. DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2007.11.003.
  • Sinha M., Khan M.A. 2001. Impact of environmental aberrations of fisheries of the Ganga (Ganges) River. Aquatic Ecosystem Health Management 4 (4): 493–504. DOI: 10.1080/146349801317276143.
  • Sivakumaran K.P., Brown P., Stoessel D., Giles A. 2003. Maturation and reproductive biology of female wild carp, Cyprinus carpio, in Victoria, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 68: 321–332. DOI: 10.1023/A:1027381304091.
  • Suguan V.V. 1995. Exotic fishes and their role in reservoir fisheries in India. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 345.
  • Sugunan V.V. 2000. Ecology and fishery management of reservoirs in India. Hydrobiologia 430 (1–3): 121–147. DOI: 10.1023/A:1004081316185.
  • Titus J.E., Grisé D., Sullivan G., Stephens M.D. 2004. Monitoring submersed vegetation in a mesotrophic lake: Correlation of two spatio-temporal scales of change. Aquatic Botany 79 (1): 33–50. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2003.11.006.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.