The impact of global climate change on the spread of parasitic nematodes
Treść / Zawartość
Climate changes may influence the frequency, intensity and geographical distribution of parasites, directly affecting their dispersive stages in the environment (eggs, larvae) and, indirectly, the larvae living mainly in invertebrate intermediate hosts. In biologically diverse nematodes climate warming contributes to the increase in the range of distribution, colonization of new hosts and modification of their development cycles. This is particularly acute in the Arctic and pertains, for instance, to nematodes Ostertagia gruehneri and Setaria tundra parasitizing reindeer Rangifer tarandus and Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis in musk oxen (Ovibos moschatus). Increase in range expansion of mosquitoes Culicidae caused that nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria, especially D. repens, have been listed in autochthonous invasions even in the northern and eastern European countries. In addition, extended range of occurrence is also shown by Ancylostoma braziliense – a parasite of carnivores in the tropical and subtropical countries. In recent years over 20 cases of autochthonous creeping eruption (CE) caused by cutanea larva migrans (CLM) A. braziliense were detected in people in southern Europe (Italy, Spain, France, Germany).