PL EN


Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2019 | 28 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

Wastewater evaluation for Multan, Pakistan: characterization and agricultural reuse

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Wastewater (WW) volume generated from both domestic and industrial sectors has increased due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. WW is increasingly used on farms because it is cheap and easily available all year, causing various environmental and health implications. In order to evaluate Multan WW, this study characterizes 154 WW samples collected from 11 disposal stations. These samples were analysed for 23 parameters related to organic matter, nutrients, inorganic matter, and pathogens to determine pollution extent distribution, agricultural reuse potential, and WW treatment database. A major contamination concern was found regarding biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total coliform, and E-Coli. The average values of BOD and COD were found to be 2.7 and 3.8 times higher than the permissible limits respectively. The microbiological parameters such as total coliform and E-Coli were found to be 10.6 and 36 times higher than the permissible limits, respectively. However, heavy metals and nutrients were found within the permissible limit except phosphorus. Here, the correlation study on selected WW parameters indicated the direct or indirect relationship among WW constituents and the impact of different sources of pollution on WW characteristics. The present study also presents a critical review of different treatment options according to contamination strength in disposal stations.
Słowa kluczowe
EN
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
28
Numer
4
Opis fizyczny
p.2159-2174,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
autor
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
autor
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
autor
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
autor
  • Mango Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan
autor
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
autor
  • Department of Environmental Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan
Bibliografia
  • 1. HAMID A., ZEB M., MEHMOOD A., AKHTAR S. SAIF, S. Assessment of wastewater quality of drains for irrigation. J. of Environ. Protec. 4 (9), 937, 2013.
  • 2. GOP. Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan. 2012. http://www.census.gov.pk
  • 3. IJAZ A., SHABIR G., KHAN Q.M. AFZAL M. Enhanced remediation of sewage effluent by endophyte-assisted floating treatment wetlands. Ecolog. Eng. 84, 58, 2015.
  • 4. SEHAR S., NAEEM S., PERVEEN I., ALI N., AHMED S. A comparative study of macrophytes influence on wastewater treatment through subsurface flow hybrid constructed wetland. Ecolog. Eng. 81, 62, 2015.
  • 5. MARGETA J., ĐURIN B. Innovative approach for achieving of sustainable urban water supply system by using of solar photovoltaic energy. Ingeniería e Investigación. 37 (1), 58, 2017.
  • 6. NAZ I., ULLAH W., SEHAR S., REHMAN A., KHAN Z.U., ALI N., AHMED S. Performance evaluation of stone-media pro-type pilot-scale trickling biofilter system for municipal wastewater treatment. Desalin and Water Treat. 57 (34), 15792, 2016.
  • 7. BUENO M.M., GOMEZ M.J., HERRERA S., HERNANDO M.D., AGÜERA A. FERNÁNDEZALBA A.R. Occurrence and persistence of organic emerging contaminants and priority pollutants in five sewage treatment plants of Spain: two years pilot survey monitoring. Environ. Pollution. 164, 267, 2012.
  • 8. NAEEM E. An Investigation of the Characteristics of Effluent Mixing in Stream. University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, 144, 2009.
  • 9. MPR (Master Plan Report). Integrated Master Plan for Multan (2008-2028) NESPAK - May 2012. www.mda.gop.pk
  • 10. PLAZA B.M., FUSAI F., CARMASSI G., JIMÉNEZ S., PARDOSSI A., LAO M.T. Effects of Treated and Untreated Wastewater from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Leachates on the Nutritional State of Viola spp: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium Communications in soil sci. and plant analysis. 44 (1-4), 480, 2013.
  • 11. MATON L., PSARRAS G., KASAPAKIS G., LORENZEN J.R., ANDERSEN M., BOESEN M., BAK S.N., CHARTZOULAKIS K., PEDERSEN S.M., KLOPPMANN W. Assessing the net benefits of using wastewater treated with a membrane bioreactor for irrigating vegetables in Crete. Agricul water manage, 98 (3), 458, 2010.
  • 12. MAQBOOL T., KHAN S.J., LEE C.H. Effects of filtration modes on membrane fouling behavior and treatment in submerged membrane bioreactor. Bioresource technol, 172, 391, 2014.
  • 13. FAO. Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture. 1992.
  • 14. YAMIN M., NASIR A., SULTAN M., ISMAIL WIW., SHAMSHIRI R., AKBAR F.N. Impact of sewage and industrial effluents on water quality in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Advances in Environmental Biology. 9 (18), 53, 2015.
  • 15. MURTAZA G., GHAFOOR A., QADIR M., OWENS G., AZIZ M.A., ZIA, M.H. Disposal and use of sewage on agricultural lands in Pakistan: A review. Pedosphere. 20 (1), 23, 2010.
  • 16. NORTON-BRANDÃO D., SCHERRENBERG S.M., VAN LIER J.B. Reclamation of used urban waters for irrigation purposes - a review of treatment technologies. J. of environ manage. 122, 85, 2013.
  • 17. KAHLOWN M.A., ASHRAF M., HUSSAIN M., SALAM H.A., BHATTI A.Z. Impact assessment of sewerage and industrial effluents on water resources, soil, crops and human health in Faisalabad. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources Khyabane-Johar, H-8/1, Islamabad. 2006.
  • 18. RAJIV P., HASNA A.S., KAMARAJ M., RAJESHWARI S., SANKAR A. Physico Chemical and Microbial Analysis of Different River Waters in Western Tamil Nadu, India. Res J. of Environ. Sci. 1, 2, 2012.
  • 19. ZAFAR L., JAVED A., ALI S.S., ANWAR Z., KHATTAK JZK. Potential of Waste Water Sludge as Environmental-Friendly Manure after UV-Treatment. Res. J. of Environmental and Earth Sci. 4 (10), 917, 2012.
  • 20. SRINIVASAN J.T., REDDY V.R. Impact of irrigation water quality on human health: A case study in India. Ecolog. Economics. 68 (11), 2800, 2009.
  • 21. DOBROWOLSKI, J., O’NEILL, M., DURIANCIK, L. AND THROWE, J. Opportunities and challenges in agricultural water reuse: Final report. Washington, DC: USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service 2008.
  • 22. PEDRERO F., KALAVROUZIOTIS I., ALARCÓN J.J., KOUKOULAKIS P., ASANO T. Use of treated municipal wastewater in irrigated agriculture - Review of some practices in Spain and Greece. Agricul Water Manage. 97 (9), 1233, 2010.
  • 23. WESTCOT D.W., AYERS R.S. Irrigation water quality criteria. 1985.
  • 24. SALEM D.M.A., KHALED A., EL NEMR A., ELSIKAILY A. Comprehensive risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. The Egypt J. of Aquatic Res. 40 (4), 349, 2014.
  • 25. FATTA-KASSINOS D., KALAVROUZIOTIS I.K., KOUKOULAKIS P.H. VASQUEZ M.I. The risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment. Sci. of Total Environ. 409 (19), 3555, 2011.
  • 26. AFZAL S., AHMAD I., YOUNAS M., ZAHID M.D., KHAN M.A., IJAZ A., ALI K. Study of water quality of Hudiara drain, India-Pakistan. Environ. Inter. 26 (1), 87, 2000.
  • 27. VAN DER HOEK W. A framework for a global assessment of the extent of wastewater irrigation: the need for a common wastewater typology, Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: Confronting the livelihood and environmental realities. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 11, 2004.
  • 28. FEENSTRA S., HUSSAIN R., VAN DER HOEK W. Health risks of irrigation with untreated urban wastewater in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. 2000.
  • 29. SAMINA K., MEHMOOD K. Agricultural Use of Untreated Urban Wastewater in Pakistan. Asian J. of Agricul. and Rural Development. 1 (1), 21, 2011.
  • 30. KHAN M.J., JAN M.T. MOHAMMAD D. Heavy metal content of alfalfa irrigated with waste and tubewell water. Soil & Environ. 30 (2) 2011.
  • 31. MUSSARAT M., BHATTI A.U., KHAN F.U. Concentration of metals in sewage and canal water used for irrigation in Peshawar. Sarhad Journal of Agricul. 23 (2), 335, 2007.
  • 32. FARYAL RANI, TAHIR FAHEEM, HAMEED A. Effect of wastewater irrigation on soil along with its micro and macro flora. Pakistan J. of Botany. 39 (1), 193, 2007.
  • 33. APHA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd ed. Washington DC 2012.
  • 34. ALI I., KHAN Z.M., SULTAN M., MAHMOOD M.H., FARID H.U., ALI M., NASIR A. 611 Experimental Study on Maize Cob Trickling Filter-Based Wastewater Treatment System: 612 Design, Development, and Performance Evaluation. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 25 (6), 2265, 613 2016.
  • 35. ARRUBLA J.P., CUBILLOS J.A., RAMÍREZ C.A., ARREDONDO J.A., ARIAS C.A. PAREDES, D. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in domestic wastewater and their removal in anaerobic treatment systems: septic tank-up flow anaerobic filter. Ingeniería e Investigación. 36 (1), 70, 2016.
  • 36. QADIR M., WICHELNS D., RASCHID-SALLY L., MCCORNICK P.G., DRECHSEL P., BAHRI A., MINHAS, P.S. The challenges of wastewater irrigation in developing countries. Agricul Water Manage. 97 (4), 561, 2010.
  • 37. PAK EPA. Pakistan Environmental Legislation and the NEQS. Pakistan Environmental 377 Protection Agency. October,1997
  • 38. BAKOPOULOU S., EMMANOUIL C. KUNGOLOS A. Assessment of wastewater effluent quality in Thessaly region, Greece, for determining its irrigation reuse potential. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 74 (2), 188, 2011.
  • 39. PRITCHARD M., MKANDAWIRE T., O’NEILL J.G. Biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells in Malawi: case study of Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje. Phys. and Chemist. of the Earth. Parts A/B/C 32.15, 1167, 2007.
  • 40. SEHAR S., NAZ I., ALI M.I., AHMED S. Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Under Ground Water Samples of District Kallar Syedan, Rawalpindi-Pakistan. Res J. of Chemical Sci. 2011.
  • 41. KHAN Z.U., NAZ I., REHMAN A., RAFIQ M., ALI, N., AHMED S. Performance efficiency of an integrated stone media fixed biofilm reactor and sand filter for sewage treatment. Desalin. and Water Treatment, 54 (10), 2638, 2015.
  • 42. BELMONT M.A., CANTELLANO E., THOMPSON S., WILLIAMSON M., SÁNCHEZ A. METCALFE, C.D. Treatment of domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale natural treatment system in central Mexico. Ecolog. Eng. 23 (4), 299, 2004.
  • 43. GULLICKS H., HASAN H., DAS D., MORETTI C. HUNG Y.T. Biofilm fixed film systems. Water. 3 (3), 843, 2011.
  • 44. CHAVEZ A., JIMENEZ B. MAYA C. Particle size distribution as a useful tool for microbial detection. Water Sci. and Techno. 50 (2), 179, 2004.
  • 45. SHAH M., HASHMI H.N., ALI A., GHUMMAN A.R. Performance assessment of aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater. J. of Environ. Health Sci. and Eng. 12 (1), 106, 2014.
  • 46. METCALF., EDDY H. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse. 4th 358 ed. The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York, New York 887, 2003.
  • 47. ASHBOLT N.J., GRABOW W.O. SNOZZI M. 13 Indicators of microbial water quality. 2001.
  • 48. SANDERS E.C., YUAN Y., PITCHFORD A. Fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations in effluent-dominated streams of the Upper Santa Cruz watershed. Water. 5 (1), 243, 2013.
  • 49. Vermount. Guidelines for wastewater irrigation. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (www.ccme.ca). 2013.
  • 50. Khaled Z., Abdallaa ., Gina H. Correlation between Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Various Wastewater Treatment Plants in Egypt to Obtain the Biodegradability Indices. Int. J. of Sci. Basic and Applied Res. (IJSBAR). 13 (1), 42, 2014.
  • 51. JIMÉNEZ B. Irrigation in developing countries using wastewater, Int. Review for Environmental Strategies, 6 (2), 229, 2006
  • 52. BAI J., XIAO R., CUI B., ZHANG K., WANG Q., LIU X., GAO H. HUANG L. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in wetland soils from the young and old reclaimed regions in the Pearl River Estuary, South China. Environ. Pollution. 159 (3), 817, 2011.
  • 53. BEZBARUAH A.N. ZHANG T.C. pH, redox, and oxygen microprofiles in rhizosphere of bulrush (Scirpus validus) in a constructed wetland treating municipal wastewater. Biotech. and Bioeng. 88 (1), 60, 2004.
  • 54. IAMCHATURAPATR J., YI S.W., RHEE J.S. Nutrient removals by 21 aquatic plants for vertical free surface-flow (VFS) constructed wetland. Ecolog. Eng. 29 (3), 287, 2007.
  • 55. LYNCH J., FOX L.J., OWEN JR J.S., SAMPLE D.J. Evaluation of commercial floating treatment wetland technologies for nutrient remediation of storm water. Ecolog Eng. 75, 61, 2015.
  • 56. SOOKNAH R.D., WILKIE A.C. Nutrient removal by floating aquatic macrophytes cultured in anaerobically digested flushed dairy manure wastewater. Ecolog. Eng. 22 (1), 27, 2004.
  • 57. GIBSON A. MANIOCHA M. The use of magnesium hydroxide slurry for biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater. Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties. LLC, white paper, 7, 2004.
  • 58. SPÅNGBERG J., TIDÅKER P., JÖNSSON H. Environmental impact of recycling nutrients in human excreta to agriculture compared with enhanced wastewater treatment. Sci. of The Total Environ. 493, 209, 2014.
  • 59. BENETTO E., NGUYEN D., LOHMANN T., SCHMITT B. SCHOSSELER P. Life cycle assessment of ecological sanitation system for small-scale wastewater treatment. Science of the total environ. 407 (5), 1506, 2009.
  • 60. STATHAM P.J. Nutrients in estuaries an overview and the potential impacts of climate change, Sci. of the Total Environ. 434, 213, 2012.
  • 61. LATIMER J.S., CHARPENTIER M.A. Nitrogen inputs to seventy-four southern New England estuaries: application of a watershed nitrogen loading model. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Sci. 89 (2), 125, 2010.
  • 62. JONSSON H., BAKY A., JEPPSSON U., HELLSTROM D. KARRMAN E. Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste for utilisation in the URWARE model. Urban water report of the MISTRA Programme, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. 2005.
  • 63. ZHAI J., XIAO H.W., KUJAWA-ROELEVELD K., HE Q., KERSTENS S.M. Experimental study of a novel hybrid constructed wetland for water reuse and its application in Southern China. Water Sci. and Technol. 64 (11), 2177, 2011.
  • 64. HAYNES R.J. NAIDU R. Influence of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter content and soil physical conditions: a review. Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems. 51 (2), 123, 1998.
  • 65. Girovich M.J. Biosolids treatment and management: processes for beneficial use. crc Press. 1996.
  • 66. DEGENS B.P., SCHIPPER L.A., CLAYDON J.J., RUSSELL J.M. YEATES G.W. Irrigation of an allophanic soil with dairy factory effluent for 22 years: responses of nutrient storage and soil biota. Soil Research. 38 (1), 25, 2000.
  • 67. JUAN-ÁLVAREZ D.C., JIMÉNEZ-CISNEROS B. Beneficial and Negative Impacts on Soil by the Reuse of Treated/Untreated Municipal Wastewater for Agricultural Irrigation – A Review of the Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives. In Environ. Risk Assessment of Soil Contam. InTech. 2014.
  • 68. SALEM DMA., KHALED A., EL NEMR A., EL-SIKAILY A. Comprehensive risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. The Egypt J. of Aquatic Res. 40 (4), 349, 2014.
  • 69. LIN Y.C., CHANG-CHIEN G.P., CHIANG P.C., CHEN W.H., LIN Y.C. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contaminations in seawater and sediments from a heavily industrialized harbor in Southern Taiwan. Marine pollution bulletin. 76 (1), 266, 2013.
  • 70. EL-SIKAILY A., KHALED, A. NEMR A.E. Heavy metals monitoring using bivalves from Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea. Environ. Monitoring and Assessment. 98 (1), 41, 2004.
  • 71. EL SIKAILY A., KHALED A. EL NEMR A. Leachable and total heavy metals in muddy and sandy sediments collected from Suez Gulf. Egypt. J. for Aquatic Res. 31 (1), 99, 2005.
  • 72. PESCOD M.B. Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture. 1992.
  • 73. DURÁN-ÁLVAREZ J.C., JIMÉNEZ-CISNEROS B. Beneficial and Negative Impacts on Soil by the Reuse of Treated/Untreated Municipal Wastewater for Agricultural Irrigation – A Review of the Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives. In Environ. Risk Assessment of Soil Contami. 2014.
  • 74. UNDERWOOD E. Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, Elsevier. 2012.
  • 75. EL NEMR A., KHALED A., MONEER A.A., EL SIKAILY A. Risk probability due to heavy metals in bivalve from Egyptian Mediterranean coast, The Egypt. J. of Aquatic Res. 38 (2), 67, 2012.
  • 76. SINGH N., BHANDARI., KAPIL NAYAL. Correlation Study on Physico-Chemical Parameters and Quality Assessment of Kosi River Water, Uttarakhand. 5 (2) 342, 0973-4945, 2008
  • 77. NKANSAH M., OPOKU F., EPHRAIM J.H., WEMEGAH D.D., TETTEH L.P.M. Characterization of Beauty Salon Wastewater from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, and Its Surrounding Communities. Environ. Health Insights. 10, 147, 2016.
  • 78. HAYDER S., BARI A. Characterization and study of correlation among major pollution parameters in textile wastewater. Mehran University Res. J. of Eng and Technol. 30 (4), 577, 2014.
  • 79. HOU P., REN Y., ZHANG Q., LU F., OUYANG Z., WANG X. Nitrogen and Phosphorous in Atmospheric Deposition and Roof Runoff. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 21 (6), 1621, 2012.
  • 80. PATOCZKA J., MACDONALD H.M. Impact of chemical addition in water/wastewater treatment on TDS concentration and sludge generation. Jurek. 2014. patoczka@hatchmott.com.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.agro-e37fc8c8-b5d2-4ab0-baa5-815affd2b036
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.