Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2016 | 25 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Fluoride in Polish drinking water and the possible risk of dental fluorosis

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
The role of fluoride in dental caries prevention is well-documented. However, excessive fluoride exposure may have detrimental effects on human health. The first overt sign of chronic fluoride overdose is enamel fluorosis. The increasing prevalence of this condition has been observed recently due to widespread use of water fluoridation, dental cavity prevention products, and environmental pollution. Our review provides basic information regarding the sources of fluoride exposure in Poland, with special attention to drinking water as well as current Polish and European Union legislation on drinking water quality. The notion of infant formula reconstituted in fluoridated water as a risk factor for enamel fluorosis development is discussed. The implications of setting the upper limit of fluoride content in the drinking water at 1.5 mg/l were mentioned. The need for increasing knowledge about adverse effects of fluoride as well as the availability of data on fluoride content in the environment is emphasized.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Bukowska 70, 60-812 Poznan, Poland
  • Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Bukowska 70, 60-812 Poznan, Poland
  • 1. CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. MMWR 50 (14), 1, 2001.
  • 2. PETERSEN P.E., LENNON M.A. Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in the 21st century: the WHO approach. Community Dent. Oral Epidem. 32 (5), 319, 2004.
  • 3. FDI WORLD DENTAL FEDERATION. FDI policy statement on promoting oral health through water fluoridation. Int. Dent. J. 64 (6), 287, 2014.
  • 4. FAWELL J., BAILEY K., CHILTON J., DAHI E., FEWTRELL L., MAGARA Y. Fluoride in Drinking-water. WHO, Geneva, 2006.
  • 5. WHO: Fluorides and Oral Health: Rapport of a WHO Expert Committee on Oral Health Status and Fluoride Use. WHO Technical Report Series No. 846. Geneva, 1994.
  • 6. SCHER. Opinion on critical review of any new evidence on the hazard profile, health effects, and human exposure to fluoride and the fluoridating agents of drinking water - 16 May 2011. Accessed 29 September 2015, Available at: http:// risks/docs/scher_o_139.pdf
  • 7. ISMAIL A.I., HASSON H. Fluoride supplements, dental caries and fluorosis: a systematic review. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 139 (11), 1457, 2008.
  • 8. HONG L., LEVY S.M., BROFFITT B., WARREN J.J., KANELLIS M.J., WEFEL J.S., DAWSON D.V. Timing of fluoride intake in relation to development of fluorosis on maxillary central incisors. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 34 (4), 299, 2006.
  • 9. ANGELILLO L.F, TORRE I., NOBILE C.G.A., VILLARI P. Caries and Fluorosis Prevalence in Communities with Different Concentrations of Fluoride in the Water. Caries Res. 33 (2), 114, 1999.
  • 10. ECKERSTEN C., PYLVÄNEN L., SCHRÖDER U., TWETMAN S., WENNHALL I., MATSSON L. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years. Int. J. Paediatr. Dent. 20 (5), 347, 2010.
  • 11. OPYDO-SZYMACZEK J., GERRETH K. Enamel fluorosis and its association with dental caries in a nonfluoridated community of Wielkopolska, Western Poland. Fluoride 46 (4), 234, 2013.
  • 12. LEVY S.M. An update on fluorides and fluorosis. J. Can. Dent. Assoc. 69 (5), 286, 2003.
  • 13. PENDRYS D.G. Risk of enamel fluorosis in nonfluoridated and optimally fluoridated populations: considerations for the dental professional. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131 (6), 746, 2000.
  • 14. DEAN H.T., JAY P., ARNOLD F.A. JR, ELVOVE E. Domestic water and dental caries. II. A study of 2,832 white children, aged 12-14 years, of 8 suburban Chicago communities, including Lactobacillus acidophilus studies of 1,761 children. Public Health Rep. 56 (15), 761, 1941.
  • 15. DEAN H.T., ARNOLD F.A. JR, ELVOVE E. Domestic water and dental caries. V. Additional studies of the relation of fluoride domestic water to dental caries experience in 4,425 white children, aged 12 to 14 years, of 13 cities in 4 states. Public Health Rep. 57 (32), 1155, 1942.
  • 16. WOCHNA- SOBAŃSKA M., SZYDŁOWSKA-WALENDOWSKA B., LUBOWIEDZKA-GONTAREK B., PROC P. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and caries in 12-year-old children living in areas with high levels of fluoride in drinking water. Czas. Stomatol. 62 (3), 178, 2009 [In Polish].
  • 17. CZAJKA-JAKUBOWSKA A. Effect of the interaction of amelogenin and enamel crystals in clinical and experimental fluorosis, Wydaw. Nauk. Uniw. Med. im. K. Marcinkowskiego, Poznań 2009 [In Polish].
  • 18. OPYDO-SZYMACZEK J., GERRETH K. Developmental enamel defects of the permanent first molars and incisors and their association with dental caries in the region of Wielkopolska, Western Poland. Oral Health Prev. Dent. doi: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a33088, 27 Nov 2014. [Epub ahead of print]
  • 19. WEYNA E., BUCZKOWSKA-RADLIŃSKA J., GROCHOLEWICZ K. The safety of fluoride prophylaxis in the light of the knowledge of students, doctors and scientific evidence. Czas. Stomat., 58 (6), 397, 2005 [In Polish].
  • 20. TYTZ-CHOJNOWSKA A., STRUŻYCKA I., SZANIAWSKA K. Assessment of knowledge of Malbork citizens on application of drinking water fluoridation. Nowa Stomatologia 4,152, 2010 [In Polish].
  • 21. ADAMOWICZ-KLEPALSKA B., BORYSEWICZ-LEWICKA M., DOBRZAŃSKA A., JACKOWSKA T., KACZMAREK U., OLCZAK-KOWALCZYK D. Current knowledge of individual fluoride prevention of dental caries in children and young adults. J. Stoma. 66 (4), 428, 2013 [In Polish].
  • 22. EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY. Guidelines on the use of fluoride in children: an EAPD policy document. Eur. Arch. Paediatr. Dent. 10 (3), 129, 2009.
  • 23. WALNA B., KURZYCA I., BEDNORZ E., KOLENDOWICZ L. Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland). Environ. Monit. Assess. 185, 5497, 2013.
  • 24. HEILMAN J.R., KIRITSY M.C., LEVY S.M., WEFEL J.S. Fluoride concentrations of infant foods. J Am. Dent Assoc. 128 (7), 857, 1997.
  • 25. JĘDRA M., URBANEK-KARŁOWSKA B., GAWARSKA H., SAWILSKA-RAUTENSTRAUCH D. Fluoride content of soft drinks produced in Poland. Rocz. Państw. Zakł. Hig. 57 (3), 203, 2006.
  • 26. OPYDO-SZYMACZEK J. Fluoride exposure from diet in infants and young children fed with the foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses. Dent. Med. Probl. 49 (2), 209, 2012.
  • 27. OPYDO-SZYMACZEK J., OPYDO J. Fluoride content of beverages intended for infants and young children in Poland. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48 (10), 2702, 2010.
  • 28. OPYDO-SZYMACZEK J., OPYDO J. Dietary fluoride intake from infant and toddler formulas in Poland. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49 (8), 1759, 2011.
  • 29. OPYDO-SZYMACZEK J., OPYDO J. Fluoride content of selected infant foods containing poultry or fish marketed in Poland. Fluoride 44 (4), 232, 2011.
  • 30. OPYDO-SZYMACZEK J., GERRETH K. Etiological factors related to dental fluorosis among children in Poznan, Poland - a preliminary report. Fluoride 45(4), 354, 2012.
  • 31. EKAMBARAM M., ITTHAGARUN A., KING N.M. Ingestion of fluoride from dentifrices by young children and fluorosis of the teeth - a literature review. J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent. 36 (2), 111, 2011.
  • 32. CZARNOWSKI W., WRZEŚNIOWSKA K., KRECHNIAK K. Fluoride in drinking water and human urine in Northern and Central Poland. Sci. Total. Environ. 191 (1-2), 177, 1996.
  • 33. EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption, O.J. L330/32., 5.12.1998.
  • 34. POLISH MINISTER OF HEALTH. Regulation of the Minister of Health of 29 March 2007 on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Journal of Laws No. 61, item. 417, 2007.
  • 35. POLISH MINISTER OF HEALTH. Regulation of the Minister of Heath dated 20 April 2010 amending the regulation on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Journal of Laws No. 72, item. 466, 2010.
  • 36. CHIEF SANITARY INSPECTORATE. Sanitary state of the country in 2014. Warsaw: Chief Sanitary Inspectorate 2015 [In Polish].
  • 37. CHIEF SANITARY INSPECTORATE. Sanitary state of the country in 2010. Warsaw: Chief Sanitary Inspectorate 2011 [In Polish].
  • 38. CHIEF SANITARY INSPECTORATE. Sanitary state of the country in 2011. Warsaw: Chief Sanitary Inspectorate 2012 [In Polish].
  • 39. CHIEF SANITARY INSPECTORATE. Sanitary state of the country in 2012. Warsaw: Chief Sanitary Inspectorate 2013 [In Polish].
  • 40. CHIEF SANITARY INSPECTORATE. Sanitary state of the country in 2013. Warsaw: Chief Sanitary Inspectorate 2014 [In Polish].
  • 41. WONS M. The quality of drinking water in the commune Gniew. J. of Research and Applications in Agr. Eng. 58 (4) 228, 2013.
  • 42. GNIAZDOWSKA A. Quality of water in Opole District in 2011. Accessed 29 September 2015, Available at: http:// Jako%C5%9B%C4%87%20wody.pdf [In Polish].
  • 43. PODGÓRSKA B., GÓRNIAK J., SYNOWIEC P., JANOWSKA M., ORZECHOWSKI M., STELMACH M. Environment protection programme for Brzeg District in 2009-2012 with the perspective on 2013-2016. Accessed 29 September 2015, Available at: http://powiat.brzeski.opolski. [In Polish].
  • 44. SAUR NEPTUN GDAŃSK. Report of the city of Gdansk and Saur Neptun Gdansk on the quality of drinking water. August 2015. Accessed 29 September 2015, Available at: komunikat-jakosc_wody.pdf [In Polish].
  • 45. WATER SUPPLIER OF TORUN. Public cretaceous wells. Accessed 29 September 2015, Available at: http://www. id=160[In Polish].
  • 46. STATE DISTRICT SANITARY INSPECTOR IN PRUSZCZ GDAŃSKI. Territorial assessment of water quality for Gdańsk District in 2011. Accessed 29 September 2015, Available at: http://www.powiat-gdanski. pl/?m=aktualnosci&id_wiadomosci=572 [In Polish].
  • 47. KOC J. WONS M., GLIŃSKA-LEWCZUK K. AND SZYMCZYK S. Content of Iron, Manganese and Fluorine in Groundwater and After its Purification to Potable Water. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 15 (2a), 364, 2006.
  • 48. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FEDERAL PANEL ON COMMUNITY WATER FLUORIDATION. U.S. Public Health Service Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for the Prevention of Dental Caries. Public Health Reports, 130, 1 July-August 2015.
  • 49. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Guidelines for drinking water quality, 3rd ed., WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2004.
  • 50. FOMON S.J., EKSTRAND J., ZIEGLER E.E. Fluoride intake and prevalence of dental fluorosis: trends in fluoride intake with special attention to infants. J. Public Health Dent. 60 (3), 131, 2000.
  • 51. US INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE. STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride., National Academy Press, Washington 1997.
  • 52. THE COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES. Commission Directive 2006/ 141/EC of 22 December 2006 on infant formulae and follow-on formulae and amending Directive 1999/21/EC. O.J.E.U.L 401, 1, 2006.
  • 53. KSIAZYK J.B., WEKER H. 2007. New feeding plan for infants in Poland, since 2007. Pediatr. Wspolcz. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. Zywienie Dziecka. 9, 9, 2007 [In Polish].
  • 54. ADA Division of Communications. For the dental patient: infants, formula and fluoride. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 138 (1), 132, 2007.
  • 55. EKSTRAND J. Fluoride intake in early infancy. J. Nutr. 119 (12 Suppl), 1856, 1989.
  • 56. BOTTENBERG P. Fluoride content of mineral waters on the Belgian market and a case report of fluorosis induced by mineral water use. Eur. J. Pediatr. 163 (10), 626, 2004.
  • 57. POLISH MINISTER OF HEALTH. Regulation of the Minister of Health of 31 March 2011 on the natural mineral waters, spring waters and potable waters. Journal of Laws No. 85, item. 466, 2011.
  • 58. BORYSEWICZ-LEWICKA M., CHŁAPOWSKA J., WAGNER L., TRYKOWSKI J. An evaluation of the fluoride content in some Polish mineral waters. Czas. Stomatol. 52 (1), 29, 1999 [In Polish].
  • 59. OPYDO-SZYMACZEK J., OPYDO J. Fluoride content of bottled waters recommended for infants and children in Poland. Fluoride 42 (3), 233, 2009.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.