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2015 | 18 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

Etiology and pathology of epidemic outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 infection in Egyptian chicken farms

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Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Epidemic outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) virus H5N1 have been frequently reported in Egypt during the last nine years. Here we investigate the involvement of AI H5N1 in outbreaks of acute respiratory disease that occurred in several commercial chicken farms in Egypt in 2011, and we describe to the pathology caused by the virus in the course of the outbreak. Twenty-one chicken farms with history of acute respiratory symptoms and high mortalities were screened for AI H5N1. Virus identification was based on hemagglutination inhibition test, and PCR detection and sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Virus distribution was determined by immunohistochemical staining of AI antigens in organs of infected birds. Standard H&E staining was performed for histological examination of affected organs. Eighty-one % of the examined birds, representing 100% of the screened farms, were positive for AI H5N1 virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the isolated virus reveals its affiliation to clade 2.2.1. Viral antigens were localized in the endothelial cells of the heart, liver, lungs and skin, where pathological lesions including congestion, hemorrhages, multifocal inflammation and necrosis were concurrently observed. According to the pattern of the viral antigen and lesion distribution in the visceral organs, we suggest cardiovascular and circulatory failures as the probable cause of death during these outbreaks. In conclusion, the present study further confirms the epidemic status of AI H5N1 virus in Egypt and reveals the highly pathogenic nature of the local isolates.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
18
Numer
4
Opis fizyczny
p.779-786,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Elzera’a square, 44511 Sharkia, Egypt
autor
  • Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Immunology, Zagazig University, Elzera’a square, 44511 Sharkia, Egypt
  • Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Elzera’a square, 44511 Sharkia, Egypt
  • Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, 55108 Minnesota, USA
  • Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Elzera’a square, 44511 Sharkia, Egypt
  • Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, 55108 Minnesota, USA
autor
  • Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Elzera’a square, 44511 Sharkia, Egypt
autor
  • Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Elzera’a square, 44511 Sharkia, Egypt
autor
  • Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Elzera’a square, 44511 Sharkia, Egypt
autor
  • Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Elzera’a square, 44511 Sharkia, Egypt
  • Laboratory of Immunology and Animal Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
  • Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Immunology, Zagazig University, Elzera’a square, 44511 Sharkia, Egypt
Bibliografia
  • Abdelwhab EM, Selim AA, Arafa A, Galal S, Kilany WH, Hassan MK, Aly MM, Hafez MH (2010) Circulation of avian influenza H5N1 in live bird markets in Egypt. Avian Dis 54: 911-914.
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  • Arafa A, Suarez D, Kholosy SG, Hassan MK, Nasef S, Selim A, Dauphin G, Kim M, Yilma J, Swayne D, Aly MM (2012) Evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt indicating progressive adaptation. Arch Virol 157: 1931-1947.
  • Arafa AS, Naguib MM, Luttermann C, Selim AA, Kilany WH, Hagag N, Samy A, Abdelhalim A, Hassan MK, Abdelwahab EM, Makonnen Y, Dauphin G, Lubroth J, Mettenleiter TC, Beer M, Grund C, Harder TC (2015) Emergence of a novel cluster of influenza A (H5N1) virus clade 2.2.1.2 with putative human health impact in Egypt, 2014/15. Euro Surveill 20: 2-8.
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  • Swayne DE (1997) Pathobiology of H5N2 Mexican avian influenza virus infections of chickens. Vet Pathol 34: 557-567.
  • van Riel D, van den Brand JM, Munster VJ, Besteboer TM, Fouchier RA, Osterhaus AD, Kuiken T (2009) Pathology and Virus Distribution in Chickens Naturally Infected with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus (H7N7) During the 2003 Outbreak in The Netherlands. Vet Pathol 46: 971-976.
  • Vollmer RT, Bancroft Jd, Stevens A (1983) Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. JAMA 250: 1909.
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Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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