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2016 | 69 | 2 |
Tytuł artykułu

Grassland communities in the USA and expected trends associated with climate change

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Warianty tytułu
PL
Zbiorowiska łąkowe w USA i spodziewane kierunki ich przekształceń związane ze zmianami klimatycznymi
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Grasslands, including managed grazinglands, represent one of the largest ecosystems on the planet. Managed grazinglands in particular tend to occupy marginal climatic and edaphic resource zones, thus exacerbating responses in net primary productivity relative to changes in system resources, including anthropogenic factors. Climate dynamism, as evident from the fossil record, appears to be a putative feature of our planet. Recent global trends in temperature and precipitation patterns seem to differ from long-term patterns and have been associated with human activities linked with increased greenhouse gas emissions; specifically CO2. Thus grasslands, with their diverse floristic components, and interaction with and dependence upon herbivores, have a remarkable ability to persist and sustain productivity in response to changing resource conditions. This resistance and resilience to change, including uncertain long-term weather conditions, establishes managed grasslands as an important means of protecting food security. We review responses of grassland communities across regions of the USA and consider the responses in productivity and system function with respect to climatic variation. Research is needed to identify plant resources and management technologies that strengthen our ability to capitalize upon physiological and anatomical features prevalent in grassland communities associated with varying growing conditions.
PL
Trwałe użytki zielone, w tym pastwiska, należą do ekosystemów trawiastych i zajmują duże obszary w strefach klimatycznych, gdzie niemożliwy jest rozwój formacji drzewiastych. Pastwiska na ogół zajmują regiony marginalne pod względem klimatycznym i glebowym, co dodatkowo przyczynia się do pogarszania ich podstawowej wydajności w stosunku do zasobów systemowych, w tym czynników antropogenicznych. Dynamika klimatu, jak wynika z danych kopalnych, jest trwałą cechą zmian zachodzących na naszej planecie. Notowane obecnie wzorce temperatury i opadów różnią się od danych wieloletnich, co wiąże się z działalnością człowieka i wzrostem emisji gazów cieplarnianych, w szczególności CO2. Trwałe użytki zielone, z ich różnorodnym składem florystycznym i oddziaływaniem i/lub uzależnieniem od roślinożerców, mają szczególną zdolność do przetrwania i utrzymywania produktywności przy zmieniających się zasobach siedliska. Ta odporność i elastyczność na zmiany długoterminowe oraz niepewne warunki pogodowe, sprawia że trwałe użytki zielone są istotnym elementem dla ochrony i zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa żywnościowego. W prezentowanej pracy dokonano przeglądu trwałych użytków zielonych w poszczególnych regionach USA oraz oceniano ich produkcyjność i funkcjonowanie w odniesieniu do zmian klimatycznych. Niezbędne są badania w celu identyfikacji zasobów roślinnych i opracowanie technologii produkcji opartych o rozpoznanie fizjologicznych i anatomicznych cech roślinności. Technologie te umożliwiają, w powiązaniu z różnymi warunkami uprawy, wykorzystanie potencjalnych możliwości zbiorowisk trawiastych.
Słowa kluczowe
EN
Wydawca
-
Czasopismo
Rocznik
Tom
69
Numer
2
Opis fizyczny
Article 1673 [25p.], fig.,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, Davis College of Agriculture, West Virginia University, 1082 Agricultural Sciences Building, Morgantown, WV 26506-6108, United States
  • Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas AandM University System, Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 1658 Vernon, TX 76385, United States
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