Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2019 | 28 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

Protecting nature in national parks: the spatial and financial contexts

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
The article discuses the nature protection function as implemented in national parks that have adopted the space context of the territorially linked municipalities, including the funding sources of the activities carried out in parks. The research was initiated by identifying anthropogenic hazards occurring in the area of national parks. In the next part of the study, the priority task of national parks, i.e., nature protection, was presented in a way that goes beyond the administrative borders of the protected area. The transformations of the nature protection function, covering 117 municipalities territorially linked with 23 national parks in Poland in the period 2001-2016, are presented. For this purpose, a statistical analysis was conducted using linear ordering methods, and the synthetic development method was applied. In the third stage of the study the funding sources of national parks were analysed, which allowed identifying the involvement of individual institutions in funding national parks and, indirectly, the scale of the activities carried out by national parks. Due to limited data availability, the third stage was implemented for the years 2015-2016. The article draws attention to the need of taking a comprehensive approach toward space covered by the area form of nature protection.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
  • Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
  • 1. MCNEELY J.A., MILLER K., National parks, conservation, and development: the role of protected areas in sustaining society: proceedings of the World Congress on National Parks, Bali, Indonesia, s. 11-22 October 1982. [In:] World Congress on National Parks, Bali (Indonesia), 1982. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984.
  • 2. MCNEELY J.A., HARRISON J., DONGWALL P., Protected Areas in the Modern World, [in:] J.A. McNeely, J. Harrison, P. Dongwall (eds.), Protecting nature: regional reviews of protected areas, IVth World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela, IUCN Publications Services Unit, 1994.
  • 3. CETIN M., ZEREN I., SEVIK H., CAKIR C., AKPINAR H. A study on the determination of the natural park’s sustainable tourism potential. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 190 (3), 167,, 2018.
  • 4. CETIN M., SEVIK H. Evaluating the recreation potential of Ilgaz Mountain National Park in Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188 (1), Vol. 52, http://link., 2016.
  • 5. CETIN M. Evaluation of the sustainable tourism potential of a protected area for landscape planning: a case study of the ancient city of Pompeipolis in Kastamonu. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 22 (6), 490, 2015. doi/abs/10.1080/13504509.2015.1081651?src=recsys&journ alCode=tsdw20
  • 6. WELLS M.P., MCSHANE T.O. Integrating protected area management with local needs and aspirations. AMBIO: a Journal of the Human Environment, 33 (8), 513, 2004.
  • 7. WELLS M.P., MCSHANE T.O., DUBLIN H.T., O’CONNOR S., REDFORD K.H. The future of integrated conservation and development projects: building on what works, [in:] T.O. McShane, M.P. Wells (eds.), Getting biodiversity projects to work: Towards more effective conservation and development, Columbia University Press, New York, 397, 2004.
  • 8. GARNETT S., SAYER J., DU TOIT J.. Improving the effectiveness of interventions to balance conservation and development: a conceptual framework, Ecology and society, 22 (1), URL:, 2007.
  • 9. HUGHES R., FLINTAN F. Integrating conservation and development experience: a review and bibliography of the ICDP literature, Biodiversity and Livelihoods, Issues No. 3 International Institute for Environment and Development, London, 2001.
  • 10. MCSHANE T.O., HIRSCH P.D., TRUNG T.C., Songorwa A.N., Kinzig A., Monteferri B., Mutekanga D., Van Thang H., Dammert J., Plugar -Vidal M., Welch -Devine M., Brosius J. P., Coppolillo P., O’Connor S. Hard choices: making trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human well-being, Biological Conservation, 144 (3), 966, 2011.
  • 11. The Act of April 16, 2004 on Nature Conservation (Journal of Laws of 2004, No. 92, item 880, as amended).
  • 12. PIEPIORA Z., GODLEWSKA M. Ekonomiczna wartość bezpieczeństwa na szlakach turystycznych na Rysy, Giewont i na Orlej Perci [Economic value of safety on tourist trails to Rysy, Giewont and on Orla Perć], Europa Regionum Volume XXVIII, University of Szczecin Scientific Publishers: Szczecin, 257, 2016.
  • 13. DODDS R.. Will tourists pay for a healthy environment? Assessing visitors’ perceptions and willingness to pay for conservation and preservation in the island of Koh Phi Phi, Thailand, International Journal Tourism Anthropology, 3 (1), 28, 2013.
  • 14. SAKELLARI M., SKANAVIS C. Sustainable tourism development: environmental education as a tool to fill the gap between theory and practice, International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 12 (4), DOI: 10.1504/IJESD.2013.056316, 2013.
  • 15. HOLDEN A. The environment - tourism nexus influence of market ethics, Annals of Tourism Research, 36 (3), 373, DOI:, 2009.
  • 16. ŚWIGOST A. The transformation of the natural environment of the Polish and Ukrainian Bieszczady mountains due to tourism and other forms of human pressure, Current Issues of Tourism Reserch, 5 (2), 27, 2015.
  • 17. NAWROCKA-GRZEŚKOWIAK U. Rozwój turystyki na Półwyspie Helskim i jej skutki (The development of tourism on Hel Peninsula and its effects), Problem Journals of Agricultural Sciences Progress, Journal 564, 155, 2011.
  • 18. POSKROBKO B., POSKROBKO T. Zarządzanie środowiskiem w Polsce (Environment management in Poland), PWE Publishers: Warsaw, 2012.
  • 19. KRAJEWSKI P. Problemy planistyczne na terenach parków krajobrazowych w sąsiedztwie Wrocławia (Planning problems in the area of landscape parks in the vicinity of Wrocław), Research Papers of Wrocław University of Economics, 37, 147, 2014.
  • 20. KRUKOWSKA R., ŚWIECA A., TUCKI A. Kim jest turysta w paku narodowym? (Who is a tourist in a national park), [In:] Workshops in the Geography of Tourism, 129,, 2016.
  • 21. KAZAK J., VAN HOOF J., SZEWRAŃSKI S., Challenges in the wind turbines location process in Central Europe – the use of spatial decision support systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 76, 425, 2017.
  • 22. SZEWRAŃSKI S., KAZAK J., ŻMUDA R., WAWER R., Indicator-Based Assessment for Soil Resource Management in the Wrocław Larger Urban Zone, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 26 (5), 2239, 2017.
  • 23. PŁUCIENNIK M., HEŁDAK M., WERNER E., SZCZEPAŃSKI J., PATRZAŁEK C. Using the Laser Technology in Designing Land Use, Landscape and Landscape Ecology. Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Landscape Ecology, 27-29 May 2015, Nitra, Slovakia, Institute of Landscape Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Branch Nitra, 162, ISBN 978-80-89325-28-3, 2016.
  • 24. KULCZYK-DYNOWSKA A. The spatial and financial aspects of protected areas using the example of the Babia Góra National Park, Hradec Economic Days 2014, Economic Development and Management of Regions, Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings, Part IV, Univerzita Hradec Kralove, Fakulta informatiky a management, 108, 2014.
  • 25. KULCZYK-DYNOWSKA A. Space protected through competition as exemplified by the Tatra National Park, Hradec Economic Days 2015, Economic Developmentand Management of Regions, Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings, Part IV, Univerzita Hradec Kralove, Fakulta informatiky a management, 322, 2015.
  • 26. PRZYBYŁA K., KULCZYK-DYNOWSKA A. Transformations of Tourist Functions in Urban Areas of the Karkonosze Mountains, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 245 (2017) 072001 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/245/7/072001, 2017.
  • 27. HELLWIG Z., Zastosowanie metody taksonomicznej do typologicznego podziału krajów ze względu na poziom ich rozwoju oraz zasoby i strukturę wykwalifikowanych kadr (The application of taxonomic method in the typological division of countries regarding their development level and resources and structure of qualified personnel) Statistical Review, 4, 307, 1968.
  • 28. STRAHL D., Propozycja konstrukcji miary syntetycznej (The proposal of statistical measure construction), Statistical Review, 25 (2). 205, 1978.
  • 29. KUKUŁA K., LUTY L. Jeszcze o procedurze wyboru metody porządkowania liniowego (Once More about the Selection Procedure for the Linear Ordering Method), Statistical Review, 64 (2), 163, 2017.
  • 30. WALESIAK M. Uogólniona miara odległości w statystycznej analizie wielowymiarowej (Generalized distance measure in a statistical multidimensional analysis), University of Economics in Wrocław Press: Wrocław, 2006.
  • 31. MARTI R., REINELT G. The Linear Ordering Problem, Exact and Heuristic Methods in Combinatorial Optimization, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Press, 2011.
  • 32. MANLY B.F.J, NAVARRO ALBERTO J.A. Multivariate Statistical Methods, CRC Press Taylor& Francis Group, Boca Raton, 2017.
  • 33. KUKUŁA K. Propozycja budowy rankingu obiektów z wykorzystaniem cech ilościowych oraz jakościowych (Proposal of ranking construction on the basis of quantitative and qualitative variables), Metody Ilościowe w Badaniach Ekonomicznych (Quantitative Methods in Economic Research), Issue XIII/2012, SGGW Press, Warsaw, 5, 2012.
  • 34. KUKUŁA K. Zero unitarisation metod as a tool in ranking research, Economic Science for Rural Development, 36, 95, 2014.
  • 35. KOWALEWSKI G., Metody porządkowania liniowego (Linear ordering methods), [In:] Dziechciarz J. (ed.) Ekonometria (Econometrics), University of Economics in Wrocław Press: Wrocław, 287, 2002.
  • 36. BAL-DOMAŃSKA B. Propozycja procedury oceny zrównoważonego rozwoju w układzie presja – stan– reakcja w ujęciu przestrzennym (The proposal of sustainable development assessment procedure from the perspective of pressure – state – reaction in the spatial arrangement) [In:] K. Jajuga, M. Walesiak (ed.), Taksonomia, Klasyfikacja i analiza danych – teoria I zastosowania (Taxonomy, Classification and data analysis – theory and applications), Research Papers of Wrocław University of Economics 427, Wrocław, 11, 2016a.
  • 37. BAL-DOMAŃSKA B. Ocena zrównoważonego rozwoju Polski w układzie powiatów w ujęciu przyczyna – stan –reakcja. Przypadek bezrobocie – ubóstwo – aktywność gospodarcza (The assessment of sustainable development of Poland in the system of counties from the perspective of cause – state – reaction. The case of unemployment – poverty – economic activity) [In:] M. Markowska, D. Głuszczuk, B. Bal-Domańska (eds.) Gospodarka regionalna w teorii i praktyce (Regional economy in theory and practice) Research Papers of Wrocław University of Economics 433, Wrocław, 9, 2016b.
  • 38. RAK G., PSTROCKA-RAK M. Analiza przestrzennego zróżnicowania rozwoju turystyki w Polsce (Spatial Diversification of Tourism Development in Poland), Wiadomości Statystyczne (Statistical messages), 3, 54, 2011.
  • 39. SOBCZYK M. Statystyka opisowa (Descriptive statistics), C.H. Beck Publishers: Warsaw, 2010.
  • 40. DOBRZAŃSKA B. Planowanie strategiczne zrównoważonego rozwoju obszarów przyrodniczo cennych (Strategic planning of sustainable development in nature-valuable areas), University of Białystok Press, Białystok, 2007.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.