Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2009 | 59 | 2 |

Tytuł artykułu

Biological activities of phytosterols with particular attention to their effects on lipid metabolism


Treść / Zawartość

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



The hypocholesterolemic effect of plant sterols (phytosterols) that relies on lowering the intestinal absorption of both dietary and endogenous cholesterol has been known since the middle of the twentieth century. Due to this fact, many food products, mostly margarines, have been enriched with phytosterols and used in management of moderate hypercholesterolemia. Phytosterol-enriched margarines enable effective therapy of moderate hypercholesterolemia with dosage of around 3 g phytosterols per day. A higher dose is not recommended due to the possibility of interference of phytosterols with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. The characteristic feature of phytosterolemia (sitosterolemia) is enhanced absorption of phytosterols which in consequence leads to premature atherosclerosis. The objective of this review is to discuss the results of available studies concerning metabolic effects of phytosterols with a closer look at their impact on lipid metabolism in humans.

Słowa kluczowe








Opis fizyczny



  • Department of Dietetics, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland


  • 1. Altmann S.W., Davis Jr H.R., Zhu L.J., Yao X., Hoos L.M., Tetzloff G., Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 protein is critical for intestinal cholesterol absorption. Science, 2004, 303, 1201–1204.
  • 2. Andersson S.W., Skinner J., Ellegard L., Welch A.A., Bingham S., Mullingan A., Anderson H., Khaw K.T., Intake of dietary plant sterols is inversely related to serum cholesterol concentration in men and women in the EPIC Norfolk population: a crosssectional study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004, 58, 1378–1385.
  • 3. Anon. Phytosterol content of food, [http://www.dietaryfiberfood. com/cholesterol-low.php] (accessed on the 5th January 2007).
  • 4. Awad A.B, Fink C.S,. Phytosterols as anticancer dietary components: evidence and mechanism of action. J. Nutr., 2000, 130, 2127–2130.
  • 5. Awad A.B, Roy R., Fink C.S., Beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol, induces apoptosis and activates key caspases in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Oncol. Rep., 2003, 10, 497–500.
  • 6. Awad A.B., Chen Y.C., Fink C.S., Hennessey T., Beta-sitosterol inhibits HT-29 human colon cancer cell growth and alters membrane lipids. Anticancer Res., 1996, 16 (5A), 2797–2804.
  • 7. Awad A.B., Toczek J., Fink C.S., Phytosterols decrease prostaglandin release in cultured P388D1/MAB macrophages. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids., 2004, 70, 511–520.
  • 8. Becker M., Staab D., von Bergmann K., Long-term treatment of severe familial hypercholesterolemia in children: effect of sitosterol and Bezafibrat. Pediatrics, 1992, 89, 138–142.
  • 9. Berger A., Jones P.J., Abumweis S.S., Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients. Lipids Health Dis., 2004, 3, 5–7.
  • 10. Berges R.R., Windeler J., Trampisch H.J., Senge T., Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Beta-sitosterol Study Group. Lancet, 1995, 345, 1529–1532.
  • 11. Bhattacharyya A.K., Connor W.E., Beta-sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis. A newly described lipid storage disease in two sisters. J. Clin. Invest., 1974, 53, 1033–1043.
  • 12. Blair S.N., Capuzzi D.M., Gottlieb S.O., Nguyen T., Morgan J.M., Cater N.B., Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am. J. Cardiol., 2000, 86, 46–52.
  • 13. Bouic P.J., The role of phytosterols and phytosterolins in immune modulation: a review of the past 10 years. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care, 2001, 4, 471–475.
  • 14. Chen J.T., Wesley R., Shamburek R.D., Pucino F., Csako G., Meta-analysis of natural therapies for hyperlipidemia: plant sterols and stanols versus policosanol. Pharmacotherapy, 2005, 25, 171–183.
  • 15. Choi Y.H., Kong K.R., Kim Y.A., Jung K.O., Kil J.H., Rhee S.H., Park K.Y., Induction of Bax and activation of caspases during beta-sitosterol-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Int. J. Oncol., 2003, 23, 1657–1662.
  • 16. De Stefani E., Boffetta P., Ronco A.L., Brennan P., Deneo-Pellegrini H., Carzoglio J.C., Mendilaharsu M., Plant sterols and risk of stomach cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr. Cancer, 2000b, 37, 140–144.
  • 17. De Stefani E., Brennan P., Boffetta P., Ronco A.L., Mendilaharsu M., Deneo-Pellegrini H., Vegetables, fruits, related dietary antioxidants, and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr. Cancer, 2000a, 38, 23–29.
  • 18. Eischner J.E., Dunn S.T., Perveen G., Thompson D.M., Stewart K.E., Stoehla B.C., Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and cardiovascular disease: A Huge review. Am. J. Epidemiol., 2002, 155, 487–495.
  • 19. Fall C.H., Barker D.J., Osmond C., Winter P.D., Clark P.M., Hales C.N., Relation of infant feeding to adult serum cholesterol concentration and death from ischaemic heart disease. Brit. Med. J., 1992, 304, 801–805.
  • 20. FDA, Food and Drug Administration. Food labeling: Health claims; plant sterol/stanol esters and coronary heart disease. Food and Drug Administration Fed. Reg., 2000, 65, 54685–54739.
  • 21. FDA, Food and Drug Administration. GRAS Notice No. GRN 000112. 2003. Available at: [] (accessed on the 1st of February 2007).
  • 22. Gylling H., Siimes M.A., Miettinen T.A., Sitostanol ester margarine in dietary treatment of children with familial hypercholesterolemia. J. Lipid Res., 1995, 36, 1807–1811.
  • 23. Hallikainen M.A., Sarkkinen E.S., Uusitupa M.I.J., Plant stanol esters affect serum cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men and women in a dose-dependent manner. J. Nutr., 2000, 130, 767–776.
  • 24. Hallikainen M.A., Uusitupa M.I.J., Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester–containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1999, 69, 403–410.
  • 25. Halling K.K., Slotte J.P., Membrane properties of plant sterols in phospholipid bilayers as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, resonance energy transfer and detergent-induced solubilization. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2004, 1664, 161–171.
  • 26. Heinemann T., Axtmann G., von Bergmann K., Comparison of intestinal absorption of cholesterol with different plant sterols in man. Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 1993, 23, 827–831.
  • 27. Hendriks H.F., Weststrate J.A., van Vliet T., Meijer G.W., Spreads enriched with three different levels of vegetable oil sterols and the degree of cholesterol lowering in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 1999, 53, 319–327.
  • 28. Hicks K.B., Moreau R.A., Phytosterols and phytostanols: Functional food cholesterol busters. Food Technol., 2001, 55, 63–69.
  • 29. Higdon J., Phytosterols. 2005 [ chemicals/sterols/index.html] (accessed on the 27th October 2006).
  • 30. Hollingsworth P., Margarine: The over-the top functional food. Food Technol., 2001, 55, 59–63.
  • 31. Homma Y., Ikeda I., Ishikawa T., Tateno M., Sugano M., Nakamura H., A randomized, placebo-controlled trial: Decrease in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein by plant stanol ester-containing spread. Nutrition, 2003, 19, 369–374.
  • 32. Jenkins D.J., Kendall C.W., Marchie A., Jenkins A.L., Connelly P.W., Jones P.J.H., Vuksam V., The Garden of Eden-plant based diets, the genetic drive to conserve cholesterol and its implications for heart disease in the 21st century. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Mol. Integr. Physiol., 2003, 136, 141–151.
  • 33. Joki P., Suomalainen H., Jarvinen K.M., Juntunen-Backman K., Gylling H., Miettinen T.A., Antikainen M., Cholesterol precursors and plant sterols in children with food allergy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2003, 77, 51–55.
  • 34. Jones P.J, Raeini-Sarjaz M., Ntanios F.Y., Vanstone C.A., Feng J.Y., Parsons W.E., Modulation of plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics by phytosterol versus phytostanol esters. J. Lipid Res., 2000, 41, 697–705.
  • 35. Jones P.J., Ntanios F.Y., Raeini-Sarjaz M., Vanstone C.A., Cholesterol- lowering efficacy of a sitostanol-containing phytosterol mixture with a prudent diet in hyperlipidemic men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1999, 69, 1144–1150.
  • 36. Klippel K.F., Hiltl D.M, Schipp B., A multicentric, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. German BPH‑Phyto Study group. Br. J. Urol., 1997, 80, 427–432.
  • 37. Kozłowska-Wojciechowska M., Phytoterols and phytostanol a new chance in prophylactics of atherosclerosis. Czynniki Ryzyka, 2002, 1, 5–12 (in Polish).
  • 38. Kritchevsky D., Chen S.C., Phytosterols – Health benefis and potential concers: a review. Nutr. Rev., 2005, 25, 413–428.
  • 39. Lagarda M.J., Garcia-Llatas G., Farre R., Analysis of phytosterols in food. J. Pharmaceut. Biomed., 2006, 41, 1486–1496.
  • 40. Law M., Plant sterol and stanol margarines and health. Br. Med. J., 2000, 320, 861–864.
  • 41. Lichtenstein A.H., Deckelbaum R.J., Stanol/sterol ester–containing foods and blood cholesterol levels. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2001, 103, 1177–1179.
  • 42. Michajlik A., Bartnikowska E., Lipidy i lipoproteiny osocza. 1999, 1st ed., Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa (in Polish).
  • 43. Miettinen T. A., Puska P., Gylling H., Vanhanen H., Vartiainen E., Reduction of serum cholesterol with sitostanol-ester margarine in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. N. Engl. J. Med., 1995, 333, 1308–1312.
  • 44. Miettinen T.A., Vanhanen H., Dietary βsitostanol related to absorption, synthesis and serum level of cholesterol in different apolipoprotein E phenotypes. Atherosclerosis, 1994, 105, 217–– 226.
  • 45. Moreau R.A., Whitaker B.D., Hicks K.B., Phytosterols, phytostanols and their conjugates in foods: structural diversity, quantitative analysis, and health-promoting uses. Prog. Lipid Res., 2002, 41, 457–500.
  • 46. Nair P.P., Turjman N., Kessie G., Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer. Dietary cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1984, 40 (4 Suppl.), 927–930.
  • 47. Navarro A., De las Heras B., Villar A., Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of a sterol fraction from Sideritis foetens Clem. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2001, 24, 470–473.
  • 48. Nguyen T.T., The cholesterol-lowering action of plant stanol esters. J. Nutr., 1999, 129, 2109–2112.
  • 49. Normén A.L., Brants H.A., Voorrips L.E., Andersson H.A., van den Brandt P.A., Goldbohm R.A., Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2001, 74, 141–148.
  • 50. Nowicka G., Polimorfizm genów a odpowiedź metaboliczna na składniki diety. (Gene polymorphisms and dietary response. 2004, in: Fizjologiczne uwarunkowania postępowania dietetycznego. Międzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowa, Listopad, 2004 Część 1. Wyd. SGGW, Warszawa, 2004, 87–96 (in Polish).
  • 51. O’Neill F.H., Brynes A., Mandeno R., Comparison of the effects of dietary plant sterol and stanol esters on lipid metabolism. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis., 2004, 14, 133–142.
  • 52. Ostlund R.E, Jr., Phytosterols in human nutrition. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 2002, 22, 533–549.
  • 53. Patel M.D, Thompson P.D., Review. Phytosterols and vascular disease. Atherosclerosis, 2006, 186, 12–19.
  • 54. Peterson D.W., Shneour E.A., Peek N.F., Dietary constituents affecting plasma and liver cholesterol in cholesterol-fed chicks. J. Nutr., 1953, 50, 191–201.
  • 55. Pollak O. J., Reduction of blood cholesterol in man. Circulation, 1953b, 7, 702–706.
  • 56. Pollak O.J., Successful prevention of experimental hypercholesterolemia and cholesterol atherosclerosis in the rabbit. Circulation, 1953a, 7, 696–701.
  • 57. Ronco A., De Stefani E., Boffetta P., Deneo-Pellegrini H., Mendilaharsu M., Leborgne F., Vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr. Cancer, 1999, 35, 111–119.
  • 58. Rudzińska M., Uchman W., Wąsowicz E., Plant sterols in food technology. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment., 2005, 4, 147–156.
  • 59. Ruibal-Mendieta N.L., Rozenberg G., Delacroix D.L., Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) wholemeals have similar sterol profiles as determined by quantitative liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 4802–4807.
  • 60. Scientific Committee on Food. Opinion on applications for approval of a variety of plant sterol-enriched foods. 2003. [ /scf/out174_en.pdf] (accessed on the 19th May 2007).
  • 61. Simons L.A., Additive effect of plant sterol-ester margarine and cerivastatin in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in primary hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Cardiol., 2002, 90, 737–740.
  • 62. Steiner R.D., Sitosterolemia. 2005, [ ped/topic2110.htm] (accessed on the 14th January2007).
  • 63. Strom S.S., Yamamura Y., Duphorne C.M., Phytoestrogen intake and prostate cancer: a case-control study using a new database. Nutr. Cancer, 1999, 33, 20–25.
  • 64. Sudhop T., Gottwald B.M., von Bergmann K., Serum plant sterols as a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease. Metabolism, 2002b, 51, 1519–1521.
  • 65. Sudhop T., Lutjohann D., von Bergmann K., Sterol transporters: targets of natural sterols and new lipid lowering drugs. Pharmacol. Ther., 2005, 105, 333–341.
  • 66. Sudhop T., Sahin Y., Lindenthal B., Hanh C., Luers H.K., von Bergmann K., Comparison of the hepatic clearances of campesterol, sitosterol, and cholesterol in healthy subjects suggests that efflux transporters controlling intestinal sterol absorption also regulate biliary secretion. Gut, 2002a, 51, 860–863.
  • 67. Superko H.R., Inherited disorders contributing to coronary heart disease. Cholesterol, Genetics, and Heart Disease Institute [] (accessed on the 14th January 2007).
  • 68. Tomoyori H., Kawata Y., Higuchi T., Ichi I., Sato H., Sato M., Ikeda I., Imaizumi K., Phytosterol oxidation products are absorbed in the intestinal lymphatics in rats but do not accelerate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice. J. Nutr., 2004, 134, 1690–1696.
  • 69. UE Legislation. [ 32004R0608:PL.:NOT] (accessed on the 27th April 2007).
  • 70. van Rensburg S.J., Daniels W.M., van Zyl J.M., Taljaard J.J., A comparative study of the effects of cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and melatonin on in vitro lipid peroxidation. Metab. Brain Dis., 2000, 15, 257–265.
  • 71. Vanhanen H.T., Blomqvist S., Ehnholm C., Hyvonen M., Jauhiainen M., Torstila I., Miettinen T.A., Serum cholesterol, cholesterol precursors, and plant sterols in hypercholesterolemic subjects with different apoE phenotypes during dietary sitostanol ester treatment. J. Lipid Res., 1993, 34, 1535–1544.
  • 72. Volpe R., Niittynen L., Korpela R., Effects of yoghurt enriched with plant sterols on serum lipids in patients with moderate hypercholesterolaemia. Br. J. Nutr., 2001, 86, 233–239.
  • 73. von Holtz R.L., Fink C.S., Awad A.B., Beta-sitosterol activates the sphingomyelin cycle and induces apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Nutr. Cancer, 1998, 32, 8–12.
  • 74. Vuorio, A.F., Gylling, H., Turtola, H., Kontula, K., Ketonen, P., Miettinen, T.A, Stanol ester margarine alone and with simvastatin lowers serum cholesterol in families with familial hypercholesterolemia caused by the FH-North Karelia mutation. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2000, 20, 500–506.
  • 75. Wang T., Hicks K.B,, Moreau R., Antioxidant activity of phytosterols, oryzanol, and other phytosterol conjugates. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2002, 79, 1201–1206.
  • 76. Weststrate J.A., Meijer G.W., Plant sterol-enriched margarines and reduction of plasma total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 1998, 52, 334–343.
  • 77. Yu L., Hammer R.E., Li-Hawkins J., Disruption of Abcg5 and Abcg8 in mice reveals their crucial role in biliary cholesterol secretion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2002, 99, 16237–16242.


Rekord w opracowaniu

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.