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2015 | 22 | 2 |
Tytuł artykułu

Accuracy of the GPS positioning system in the context of increasing the number of satellites in the constellation

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
A possibility of utilising the GPS system for navigation and transport are fundamentally dependent on the accuracy in positioning. Two fundamental factors decisive for its value are the values of the User Range Error (URE) and Dilution of Precision (DOP), strictly related to the number of satellites forming the constellation. The nominal constellation of GPS satellites consists of 24 units which gives a possibility of identification of coordinates all over the globe. In the last few years, however, the nominal number of satellites in the constellation was much higher, and the URE value has been constantly increasing. The authors of the paper try to estimate the impact of the changing number of GPS satellites on accuracy of position coordinates with a variable URE value. Mathematical model for estimating geometrical indicators’ value, utilising data derived from the almanac files has been presented. Following a drawn-up algorithm and calculations made with Mathcad software, the authors carried out a comparative analysis of mean daily values of DOP indicators for a variable number of satellites included in the GPS constellation in the years 2001-2013. Then, the authors have established representative values of Two Distance Root Mean Square Error (2drms) 2D and 3D, and calculated a percentage increase of accuracy in the period under discussion
Słowa kluczowe
EN
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
22
Numer
2
Opis fizyczny
p.9-14,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Gdynia Maritime University, 18 Sedzickiego St., 81-374 Gdynia, Poland
autor
  • Gdynia Maritime University, 18 Sedzickiego St., 81-374 Gdynia, Poland
autor
  • Institute of Navigation and Maritime Hydrography, Polish Naval Academy, 69 Smidowicza St., 81-103 Gdynia, Poland
autor
  • Gdynia Maritime University, 18 Sedzickiego St., 81-374 Gdynia, Poland
Bibliografia
  • 1. Koc W., Specht C.: Application of the Polish Active GNSS Geodetic Network for Surveying and Design of the Railroad. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Road and Rail Infrastructure – CETRA 2010, 2010, pp. 757-762.
  • 2. Skóra M., Specht C.: Comparative Analysis of Selected Active Geodetic Networks (in Polish).. Zeszyty Naukowe AMW, No. 3 (178), 2009, pp. 39-54.
  • 3. Koc W., Specht C.: Results of Satellite Measurements of the Railway Tracks (in Polish), TTS -Technika Transportu Szynowego, No. 7-8, 2009, pp. 58-64.
  • 4. Koc W., Specht C., Nowak A., Szulwic J., Szmagliński J., Skóra M., Specht M., Czapnik M.: Availability of Phase Solutions of GPS / GLONASS During the Geodesic Inventory of Railways – on the Example of Tramway Lines in Gdańsk (in Polish). TTS - Technika Transportu Szynowego, No. 9, 2012, pp. 3441-3451.
  • 5. Czaplewski K.: The Fundamentals of Maritime and Inland Navigation (in Polish), Wydawnictwo Bernardinum, 2014.
  • 6. Śniegocki H.: Safety of LNG Tankers During the Harbour Approach with Particular Emphasis on Changes of Existing Navigational Aids - with the External Port and the LNG Terminal in Swinoujscie as an example (in Polish), 15th PPEEm Symposium, 2012.
  • 7. Śniegocki H.: International Organizations Requirements Regarding the Breadth of the Port Approach for Biggest LNG Tankers (in Polish)., Logistyka, No. 6, 2011.
  • 8. Gackowska A., Śniegocki H.: AIS System in the Area of Pomeranian Bay (in Polish), 14th PPEEm Symposium, 2011, pp. 3751-3758.
  • 9. Jaskólski K.: Availability of AIS Binary Data Transmission Based on Dynamic Measurements Performed on the Southern Baltic and the Danish Straits, Annual of Navigation, No. 20, 2013, pp. 25-36.
  • 10. Weintrit, A.: Telematic Approach to e-Navigation Architecture, Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 104, 2010, pp. 1-11.
  • 11. Weintrit A.: Electronic Navigational Chart: Introduction to the Electronic Chart Display & Information System (ECDIS) (in Polish), Wydawnictwo Uczelniane WSM , Gdynia, 1997.
  • 12. Oszczak B.: New Algorithm for GNSS Positioning Using System of Linear Equations, Proceedings of the ION GNSS’2013, 2013.
  • 13. Oszczak B., Tanajewski D.: The Use of Geographical Information System at Local Airport Management, Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Engineering, 2014.
  • 14. Specht C., Szot T., Specht M.:The Research on Accuracy of the Personal GPS Receivers in Dynamic Measurements (in Polish), TTS - Technika Transportu Szynowego, No. 10, 2013, pp. 2547-2555.
  • 15. Specht M., Szot T.: Accuracy Analysis of GPS Sport Receivers in Dynamic Measurements, Annual of Navigation, No. 19(1), 2012, pp. 165-176.
  • 16. Januszewski J.: GPS, Galileo and Other Satellite Navigation Systems (in Polish), PWN, Warsaw, 2006.
  • 17. Banachowicz A., Bober R., Szewczuk T., Wolski A.: Study on Effect of System Geometry on Position Fixing Accuracy with GPS Receiver (in Polish)., Zeszyty Naukowe AMW, No. 4 (175), 2008, pp. 15-24.
  • 18. Interface Specification – Navstar GPS Space Segment / Navigation User Interfaces (IS-GPS-200), Revision F, 2011.
  • 19. Wang Y., Li R.: The analysis of character of User Range Accuracy, China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2013, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Vol. 244, 2013, pp. 267-277.
  • 20. Marquis W.: Increased Navigation Performance from GPS Block IIR, NAVIGATION: Journal of The Institute of Navigation, Vol. 50, No. 4, Winter 2003-2004, pp. 219-233.
  • 21. William J. Hughes Technical Center : NSTB/WAAS T&E Team, Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS), Performance Analysis Report, FAA GPS Product Team, 2000-2010.
  • 22. Bailey B.K.: GPS Modernization Update & Program Plans, Proceedings of the 13th Meeting of National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Advisory Board, 2014.
  • 23. Heng L., Gao G.X., Walter T., Enge P.: Statistical Characterization of GPS Signal-In-Space Errors, Proceedings of the 2011 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, 2011, pp. 312-319.
  • 24. Januszewski J.: GPS system Today and in the Future (in Polish), Prace Wydziału Nawigacyjnego Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni, No. 24, 2010, pp. 17-29,
  • 25. Global Positioning System Standard Positioning Service Performance Standard, 4th Edition, United States of America Department of Defense, 2008.
  • 26. Grall P., Specht C.: Comparative Evaluation of GPS SPS Standards for Accuracy in Fixing Position (in Polish), Zeszyty Naukowe AMW, No. 3 (186), 2011, pp. 43-56.
  • 27. Specht C.: The GPS System (in Polish)., Wydawnictwo Bernardinum, 2007.
  • 28. Interface Control Document – Navstar GPS Space Segment / Navigation User Interfaces (ICD-GPS-200), Revision C, 2000.
  • 29. Grewal M. S., Weill L. R. and Andrews A. P.: Appendix C: Coordinate Transformations, in Global Positioning Systems, Inertial Navigation, and Integration, John Wiley & Sons, ? , 2002.
  • 30. Office of the Press Secretary: Statement by the President Regarding the United States Decision on the Global Positioning System Accuracy, White House Press Release, 2000.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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