Endophenotypes as a measure of suicidality
Suicide is thought to result from the harmful interaction of multiple factors that have social, environmental, neurobiological, and genetic backgrounds. Recent studies have suggested that genetic predisposition to suicidal behavior may be independent of the risk of suicide associated to mental disorders, such as affective disorders, schizophrenia, or alcohol dependence. Given the suicidal behavior heterogeneity and its hereditary complexity, the need to find demonstrable intermediate phenotypes that may make it possible to establish links between genes and suicide behaviors (endophenotypes) seems to be necessary. The main objective of this review was to consider the candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behaviors. Due to the recent advances in neuroimaging, we also characterize brain regions implicated in vulnerability to suicide behavior that are influenced by gene polymorphisms associated with suicidal behavior.
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