Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2011 | 29 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

Environmental factors affecting the speed of Thoroughbred horses competing in Poland

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
The study was conducted to examine some factors affecting speed of Thoroughbred horses competing at Polish racecourses. Data on horses’ speed (m/s) in flat races from year 2001 to 2005 comprised 12,643 records for 1,543 Thoroughbred horses competing in 1,876 races. Statistical analysis accounted for fixed effects of distance, age, sex, trainer, competition (defined as number of horses competing within one horse length from the winner at the moment of crossing the finishing line), track condition, weight carried, number of runners in a race and for the random effect of race, rider and horse. Almost all the factors included in the linear model were highly significant (P<0.01), but distance × competition test revealed a significant difference (P<0.05). Average speed of Polish Thoroughbreds and mean distance of the races was 15.57 m/s and 1509.1 m, respectively. Speed of horses decreased when racing distance increased and males were faster than females. Three-year-old horses ran faster (LSM=15.29 m/s) than the 2-year-olds (LSM=15.26 m/s) but slower than 4-year-old and older horses (LSM=15.36 m/s). Condition of the racing track resulted in a difference in Racine speed of 1.13 m/s between fast and heavy assessed track. Least squares mean (LSM) of the Speer without competition between horses was 15.23 m/s, and increased to 15.33 m/s and 15.36 m/s when there were one and two competing horses, respectively. The increase in speed due to competition was highest in 1000 m races. Speed did not significantly differ between one or two competing horses,except at the distance of 1200 m. The horses carrying more weight during a race showed a flower speed (P<0.01). Speed was 0.02 m/s higher for each additional horse in a race. The random race effect was the largest, while the random rider effect the smallest component of variance.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jastrzebiec, 05-552 Wolka Kosowska, Poland
  • Bakhtiari J., Kashan N.E.J., 2009 – Estimation of genetic parameters of racing performance in Iranian Thoroughbred horses. Livestock Science 120, 151-157.
  • Bugislaus A.E., Rőhe R., Kalm E., 2004 – Comparison of two different statistical models considering individual races or race tracks for evaluation of German trotters. Livestock Production Science 32, 69-76.
  • Dušek J., 1965 – Evaluation of times reached by thoroughbreds in flat races at the state owned race course in Chuchle. Bulletin Vyzkumna Stanice pro Chov Koni, 143-160.
  • Ekiz B., Koçak Ö., 2005 – Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates for racing traits of Arabia horses in Turkey. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 122, 349-356.
  • Ekiz B., Koçak Ö., 2007 – Estimates of genetic parameters for racing times of Thoroughbred horses. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 31, 1-5.
  • Ekiz B., Koçak Ö., YILMAZ A., 2005 – Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates for Racine traits of Thoroughbred horses in Turkey. Archiv für Tierzucht 48 (2), 121-129.
  • Gallagher J.R., Fleet M.R., Hintz H.F., 1997 – Selective breeding for racing performance in horses. Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics 12, 140-144.
  • Górecka A., Geringer de Oedenderg H., Guzik E., 2008 – Genetic and phenotypic parameters of racing performance in Thoroughbred horses in Poland. Roczniki Naukowe PTZ 4,(3), 11-20.
  • Harkins J.D., Kamerling S.G., 1993 – Effect of race distance and competition on performance of thoroughbred racehorses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 13 (1), 41-45.
  • Harkins J.D., Kamerling S.G., Church G., 1992 – Effect of competition on performance of Thoroughbred racehorses. Journal of Applied Physiology 72 (3), 836-841.
  • Jelinek J., 1988 – Differences in the manifested racing performance of the English Thoroughbred:evaluation of horses of different sexes and years of birth by parametric and nonparametric test. Scientific Agricultural Boheaca 2, 131-138.
  • Köseman A., Özbeyaz C., 2009 – Some phenotypic and genetic parameters of racing performance in Arabian horses. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 56, 219-224.
  • Martin G.S., Strand E., Kearney M.T., 1996 – Use of statistical models to evaluate Racine performance in Thoroughbreds. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association 209 (11),1900-1906.
  • Misař D., Jiskrová I., Somerliková K., 2000 – The effect of course surface quality on development of speed in some French flat races. Czech Journal of Animal Science 45, 309-312.
  • Moritsu Y., Funakoshi H., Ichikawa S., 1994 – Genetic evaluation of sires and environmental factors influencing best racing times of Thoroughbred horses in Japan. Journal of Equine Science 5(2), 53-58.
  • Mota M.D.S., Abrahao A.R., Oliveira H.N., 2005 – Genetic and environmental parameters for racing time at different distances in Brazilian Thoroughbreds. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 122, 393-399.
  • Mota M.D.S., Oliveira H.N., Silva R. G., 1998 – Genetic and environmental factors that affect the best time of Thoroughbred horses in Brazil. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 115, 123-129.
  • Oki H., Sasaki Y., Lin C. Y., Willham R.L.,1995 – Influence of jockeys on racing time In Thoroughbred horses. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 112, 171-175.
  • Oki H., Sasaki Y., Willham R.L., 1994 – Genetics of racing performance in the Japanese Thoroughbred horse: II. Environmental variation of racing time on turf and dirt tracks and the influence of sex, age, and weight carried on racing time. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 111 (2), 128-137.
  • Rőhe R., Savas T., Brka M., Willms F., Kal M E., 2001 – Estimation of genetic parameters for racing performances in German Trotters. Archiv für Tierzucht 44, 579-587.
  • Sabeva I., 2000 – Estimation of the breeding value of stallions from Arabian breed regarding the race abilities. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 6, 473-476.
  • Shurink A., Theunissen M.C.J., Ducro B.J., Bijma P., van Grevenhof , 2009 –Identification of environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in the Netherlands. Livestock Science 125, 97-100.
  • Sobczyńska M., 2003 – Wpływ niektórych czynników na parametry genetyczne cech wyścigowych koni pełnej krwi angielskiej i czystej krwi arabskiej (Influence of some effects on genetic parameter estimates for racing performance in Thoroughbreds and Arabian horses). In Polish with English summary. Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 30 (2), 223-231.
  • Sobczyńska M., Łukaszewicz M., 2004 – Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in Poland. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 121, 302-306.
  • Taveira R.Z., Mota M.D.S., Oliveira H.N., 2004 – Population parameters in Brazylian Thoroughbred. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 121, 384-391.
  • Thuneberg -Selonen T., Pösö J., Mäntysaari E., Ojala M., 1999 – Use of individual race results in the estimation of genetic parameters of trotting performance for Finnhorse and Standardbred trotters. Agricultural and Food Science in Finland 8, 353-363.
  • Tolley E.A., Notter D.R., Marlowe T.J., 1983 – Heritability and repeatability of speed for 2- and 3- year old Standardbred racehorses. Journal of Animal Science 56, 1294-1305.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.