Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 60 | 3 |
Tytuł artykułu

The dentition of megalosaurid theropods

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Theropod teeth are particularly abundant in the fossil record and frequently reported in the literature. Yet, the dentition of many theropods has not been described comprehensively, omitting details on the denticle shape, crown ornamentations and enamel texture. This paucity of information has been particularly striking in basal clades, thus making identification of isolated teeth difficult, and taxonomic assignments uncertain. We here provide a detailed description of the dentition of Megalosauridae, and a comparison to and distinction from superficially similar teeth of all major theropod clades. Megalosaurid dinosaurs are characterized by a mesial carina facing mesiolabially in mesial teeth, centrally positioned carinae on both mesial and lateral crowns, a mesial carina terminating above the cervix, and short to well-developed in-terdenticular sulci between distal denticles. A discriminant analysis performed on a dataset of numerical data collected on the teeth of 62 theropod taxa reveals that megalosaurid teeth are hardly distinguishable from other theropod clades with ziphodont dentition. This study highlights the importance of detailing anatomical descriptions and providing additional morphometric data on teeth with the purpose of helping to identify isolated theropod teeth in the future.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Departamento de Ciencias da Terra, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, GeoBioTec (formerly CICEGe), Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
  • Museu da Lourinha, 9 Rua Joao Luis de Moura, 2530-158 Lourinha, Portugal
  • Departamento de Ciencias da Terra, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, GeoBioTec (formerly CICEGe), Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
  • Museu da Lourinha, 9 Rua Joao Luis de Moura, 2530-158 Lourinha, Portugal
  • Huffington Department of Earth Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Daniel Avenue 75275-0395 Dallas, Texas, USA
  • Museu da Lourinha, 9 Rua Joao Luis de Moura, 2530-158 Lourinha, Portugal
  • Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisbona, 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal
  • Allain, R. 2002. Discovery of megalosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) in the middle Bathonian of Normandy (France) and its implications for the phylogeny of basal Tetanurae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22: 548-563.
  • Araújo, R., Castanhinha, R., Martins, R.M.S., Mateus, O., Hendrickx, C., Beckmann, F., Schell, N., and Alves, L.C. 2013. Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Scientific Reports 3: 1-8.
  • Barrett, P.M. 2000. Prosauropod dinosaurs and iguanas: speculations on the diets of extinct reptiles. In: H.-D. Sues (ed.), Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates, 42-78. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Barsbold, R. and Osmólska, H. 1999. The skull of Velociraptor (Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 44: 189-219.
  • Benson, R.B.J. 2008. A redescription of "Megalosaurus" hesperis (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Inferior Oolite (Bajocian, Middle Jurassic) of Dorset, United Kingdom. Zootaxa 1931: 57-67.
  • Benson, R.B.J. 2009. An assessment of variability in dinosaur remains from the Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) of Stonesfield and New Park Quarry, UK and taxonomic implications for Megalosaurus bucklandii and Iliosuchus incognitus. Palaeontology 52: 857-877.
  • Benson, R.B.J. 2010a. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 882-935.
  • Benson, R.B.J. 2010b. The osteology of Magnosaurus nethercombensis (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) of the United Kingdom and a re-examination of the oldest records of tetanu-rans. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 8: 131-146.
  • Benson, R.B.J., Barrett, P.M., Powell, H.P., and Norman, D.B. 2008. The taxonomic status of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria, Therop-oda) from the Middle Jurassic of Oxfordshire, UK. Palaeontology 51: 419-424.
  • Britt, B.B. 1991. Theropods of Dry Mesa Quarry (Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic), Colorado, with emphasis on the osteology of Torvo-saurus tanneri. Brigham Young University Geology Studies 37: 1-72.
  • Brusatte, S.L., Benson, R.B.J., Carr, T.D., Williamson, T.E., and Sereno, P.C. 2007. The systematic utility of theropod enamel wrinkles. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27: 1052-1056.
  • Brusatte, S.L., Benson, R.B.J., Currie, P.J., and Xijin, Z. 2010a. The skull of Monolophosaurus jiangi (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and its implications for early theropod phylogeny and evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 573-607.
  • Brusatte, S.L., Norell, M.A., Carr, T.D., Erickson, G.M., Hutchinson, J.R., Balanoff, A.M., Bever, G.S., Choiniere, J.N., Makovicky, P.J., and Xu, X. 2010b. Tyrannosaur paleobiology: new research on ancient exemplar organisms. Science 329: 1481-1485.
  • Buckley, L.G. 2009. Individual and Ontogenetic Variation in Theropod Dinosaur Teeth: A Case Study of Coelophysis bauri (Theropoda: Coelo-physoidea) and Implications for Identifying Isolated Theropod Teeth. 109 pp. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Alberta, Canada.
  • Buckley, L.G., Larson, D.W., Reichel, M., and Samman, T. 2010. Quantifying tooth variation within a single population of Albertosaurus sarcophagus (Theropoda: Tyrannosauridae) and implications for identifying isolated teeth of tyrannosaurids. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 47: 1227-1251.
  • Buffetaut, E. 2012. An early spinosaurid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania) and the evolution of the spinosaurid dentition. Oryctos 10: 1-8.
  • Burnham, D.A. 2004. New Information on Bambiraptor feinbergi (Theropoda: Dromaeosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Montana. In: P.J. Currie, E.B. Koppelhus, M.A. Shugar, and J.L. Wright (eds.), Feathered Dragons: Studies on the Transition from Dinosaurs to Birds, 67-111. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
  • Carrano, M.T., Benson, R.B.J,. and Sampson, S.D. 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10: 211-300.
  • Carrano, M.T., Sampson, S.D., and Forster, C.A. 2002. The osteology of Masiakasaurus knopfleri, a small abelisauroid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22: 510-534.
  • Charig, A.J. and Milner, A.C. 1997. Baryonyx walkeri, a fish-eating dinosaur from the Wealden of Surrey. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum 53: 11-70.
  • Clark, J.M., Perle, A., and Norell, M. 1994. The skull of Erlicosaurus an-drewsi, a late Cretaceous "Segnosaur" (Theropoda, Therizinosauridae) from Mongolia. American Museum Novitates 3115: 1-39.
  • Currie, P.J. 1987. Bird-like characteristics of the jaws and teeth of troodon-tid theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 7: 72-81.
  • Currie, P.J. 1995. New information on the anatomy and relationships of Dro-maeosaurus albertensis (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15: 576-591.
  • Currie, P.J. and Carpenter, K. 2000. A new specimen of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis (Theropoda, Dinosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous Antlers Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian) of Oklahoma, USA. Geodiver-sitas 22: 207-246.
  • Currie, P.J. and Varricchio, D.J. 2004. A new dromaeosaurid from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation (upper Cretaceous) of Alberta, Canada. In: P.J. Currie, E.B. Koppelhus, M.A. Shugar, and J.L. Wright (eds.), Feathered Dragons: Studies on the Transition from Dinosaurs to Birds, 112-132. Bloomington, Indiana.
  • Currie, P.J. and Zhao, X.-J. 1993. A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30: 2037-2081.
  • Currie, P.J., Rigby, J.K.J., and Sloan, R.E. 1990. Theropod teeth from the Judith River Formation of southern Alberta, Canada. In: K. Carpenter and P.J. Currie (eds.), Dinosaur Systematics: Approaches and Perspectives, 107-125. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Evans, D.C., Larson, D.W., and Currie, P.J. 2013. A new dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with Asian affinities from the latest Cretaceous of North America. Naturwissenschaften 100: 1041-1049.
  • Fanti, F. and Therrien, F. 2007. Theropod tooth assemblages from the Late Cretaceous Maevarano Formation and the possible presence of dromae-osaurids in Madagascar. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52: 155-166.
  • Galton, P.M. and Jensen, J.A. 1979. A new large theropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Colorado. Brigham Young University Geology Studies 26 (2): 1-12.
  • Gauthier, J. 1986. Saurischian monophyly and the origin of birds. In: K. Padian (ed.), The Origin of Birds and the Evolution of Flight, Vol. 8, 1-55. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.
  • Gianechini, F.A., Makovicky, P. J., and Apesteguia, S. 2011. The teeth of the unenlagiine theropod Buitreraptor from the Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina, and the unusual dentition of the Gondwanan dromaeosaurids. ActaPalaeontologicaPolonica 56: 279-290.
  • Gong, E., Martin, L.D., Burnham, D.A., and Falk, A.R. 2010. The birdlike raptor Sinornithosaurus was venomous. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (2): 766-768.
  • Gong, E., Martin, L.D., Burnham, D.A., and Falk, A.R. 2011. Evidence for a venomous Sinornithosaurus. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 85: 109-111.
  • Hammer, 0., Harper, D.A.T., and Ryan, P.D. 2001. Past: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for education and data analysis. Palaeon-tologia Electronica 4 (1): 1-9.
  • Han, F., Clark, J.M., Xu, X., Sullivan, C., Choiniere, J., and Hone, D.W.E. 2011. Theropod teeth from the Middle-Upper Jurassic Shishugou Formation of northwest Xinjiang, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31: 111-126.
  • Hanson, M. and Makovicky, P.J. 2013. A new specimen of Torvosaurus tanneri originally collected by Elmer Riggs. Historical Biology: 1-10.
  • Hasegawa, Y., Tanaka, G., Takakuwa, Y., and Koike, S. 2010. Fine sculptures on a tooth of Spinosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco. Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History 14: 11-20.
  • Hendrickx, C. and Mateus, O. 2014a. Abelisauridae (Dinosauria: Therop-oda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal and dentition-based phylogeny as a contribution for the identification of isolated theropod teeth. Zootaxa 3759: 1-74.
  • Hendrickx, C. and Mateus, O. 2014b. Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the largest terrestrial predator from Europe, and a proposed terminology of the maxilla anatomy in nonavian theropods. PLoS ONE 9 (3): e88905.
  • Hendrickx, C., Hartman, S.A., and Mateus, O. (in press a). An overview on non-avian theropod discoveries and classification. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology.
  • Hendrickx, C., Mateus, O., and Araújo, R. (in press b). A proposed terminology of theropod teeth (Saurischia: Dinosauria). Journal ofVertebrate Paleontology.
  • Hocknull, S.A., White, M.A., Tischler, T.R., Cook, A.G., Calleja, N.D., Sloan, T., and Elliott, D.A. 2009. New mid-Cretaceous (Latest Albian) dinosaurs from Winton, Queensland, Australia. PLoS ONE 4 (7): e6190.
  • Holtz, T.R.J. 2004. Tyrannosauroidea. In: D.B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska (eds.), The Dinosauria. Second Edition, 111-136. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Holtz, T.R.J., Molnar, R.E, and Currie, P.J. 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In: D.B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska (eds.), The Dinosauria. Sec-ondEdition, 71-10. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Huene, F.R. von 1923. Carnivorous saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 34: 449-458.
  • Kear, B.P., Rich, T.H., Vickers-Rich, P., Ali, M.A., Al-Mufarreh, Y.A., Ma-tari, A.H., Al-Massari, A.M., Nasser, A.H., Attia, Y., and Halawani, M.A. 2013. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia. PLoS ONE 8 (12): e84041.
  • Larson, D.W. and Currie, P.J. 2013. Multivariate analyses of small theropod dinosaur teeth and implications for paleoecological turnover through time. PLoS ONE 8 (1): e54329.
  • Li, F., Peng, G., Ye, Y., Jiang, S., and Huang, D. 2009. A new carnosaur from the Late Jurassic of Qianwei, Sichuan, China. Acta Geologica Sinica 83: 1203-1213.
  • Madsen, J.H. 1976a. Allosaurus fragilis: A Revised Osteology. Utah Geological Survey Bulletin 109: 1-177.
  • Madsen, J.H. 1976b. A second new theropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of east central Utah. Utah Geology 3: 51-60.
  • Madsen, J.H. and Welles, S.P. 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda): a revised osteology. Utah Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Publication 00-2: 1-89.
  • Mantell, G.A. 1827. Illustrations of the Geology of Sussex: A General Viewof the Geological Relations of the South-Eastern Part of England, with Figures and Descriptions of the Fossils of Tilgate Forest. 92 pp. Lupton Relfe, London.
  • Mateus, O., Walen, A., and Antunes, M. T. 2006. The large theropod fauna of the Lourinha Formation (Portugal) and its similarity to the Morrison Formation, with a description of a new species of Allosau-rus. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 36: 123-129.
  • Molnar, R.E., Obata, I., Tanimoto, M., and Matsukawa, M. 2009. A tooth of Fukuiraptor aff. F. kitadaniensis from the Lower Cretaceous Se-bayashi Formation, Sanchu Cretaceous, Japan. Bulletin of Tokyo Ga-kugei University, Division ofNatural Sciences 61: 105-117.
  • Naish, D. 2012. Birds. In: M.K. Brett-Surman, T.R.J. Holtz, and J.O. Far-low (eds.), The Complete Dinosaur, Second Edition, 379-423. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
  • Norell, M.A., Clark, J.M., Turner, A.H., Makovicky, P.J., Barsbold, R., and Rowe, T. 2006. A new dromaeosaurid theropod from Ukhaa Tolgod (Ömnögov, Mongolia). American Museum Novitates 3545: 1-51.
  • Norell, M.A., Makovicky, P.J., Bever, G.S., Balanoff, A.M., Clark, J.M., Barsbold, R., and Rowe, T. 2009. A review of the Mongolian Cretaceous dinosaur Saurornithoides (Troodontidae: Theropoda). American MuseumNovitates 3654: 1-63.
  • Ostrom, J.H. 1969. Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an unusual theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana. Bulletin Peabody Museum ofNatural History 30: 1-165.
  • Pol, D. and Rauhut, O.W.M. 2012. A Middle Jurassic abelisaurid from Patagonia and the early diversification of theropod dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279: 3170-3175.
  • Rauhut, O.W.M. 2004. Provenance and anatomy of Genyodectes serus, a large-toothed ceratosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Patagonia. Journal ofVertebrate Paleontology 24: 894-902.
  • Rauhut, O.W.M. 2005. Osteology and relationships of a new theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia. Palaeontology 48: 87-110.
  • Rauhut, O.W.M. and Werner, C. 1995. First record of the family Dromae-osauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) in the Cretaceous of Gondwana (Wadi Milk Formation, northern Sudan). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 69: 475-489.
  • Rauhut, O.W.M., Milner, A.C., and Moore-Fay, S. 2010. Cranial osteology and phylogenetic position of the theropod dinosaur Proceratosaurus bradleyi (Woodward, 1910) from the Middle Jurassic of England. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158 (1): 155-195.
  • Richter, U., Mudroch, A., and Buckley, L.G. 2013. Isolated theropod teeth from the Kem Kem Beds (Early Cenomanian) near Taouz, Morocco. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 87: 291-309.
  • Sadleir, R., Barrett, P.M., and Powell, H.P. 2008. The anatomy and sys-tematics of Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis, a theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Oxfordshire, England. Monograph of the Palae-ontographicalSociety, London 160: 1-82.
  • Samman, T., Powell, G.L., Currie, P.J., and Hills, L.V. 2005. Morphometry of the teeth of western North American tyrannosaurids and its applicability to quantitative classification. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50: 757-776.
  • Sankey, J.T., Brinkman, D.B., Guenther, M., and Currie, P.J. 2002. Small theropod and bird teeth from the Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian) Judith River Group, Alberta. Journal of Paleontology 76: 751-763.
  • Sereno, P.C. and Brusatte, S.L. 2008. Basal abelisaurid and carcharodon-tosaurid theropods from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation of Niger. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 53: 15-46.
  • Sereno, P.C., Beck, A.L., Dutheil, D.B., Gado, B., Larsson, H.C.E., Lyon, G.H., Marcot, J.D., Rauhut, O.W.M., Sadleir, R.W., Sidor, C.A., Varric-chio, D.D., Wilson, G.P., and Wilson, J.A. 1998. A long-snouted predatory dinosaur from Africa and the evolution of spinosaurids. Science 282: 1298-1302.
  • Sereno, P.C., Dutheil, D.B., Larochene, M., Larsson, H.C.E., Lyon, G.H., Magwene, P.M., Sidor, C.A., Varricchio, D.J., and Wilson, J.A. 1996. Predatory dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous faunal differentiation. Science 272: 986-991.
  • Sereno, P.C., Wilson, J.A., Larsson, H.C.E., Dutheil, D.B., and Sues, H.-D. 1994. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Sahara. Science 266: 267-271.
  • Smith, J.B. 2005. Heterodonty in Tyrannosaurus rex: implications for the axonomic and systematic utility of theropod dentitions. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25: 865-887.
  • Smith, J.B. 2007. Dental morphology and variation in Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (Supplement 2): 103-126.
  • Smith, J.B. and Dalla Vecchia, F.M. 2006. An abelisaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) tooth from the Lower Cretaceous Chicla formation of Libya. Journal of African Earth Sciences 46: 240-244.
  • Smith, J.B. and Dodson, P. 2003. A proposal for a standard terminology of anatomical notation and orientation in fossil vertebrate dentitions. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23: 1-12.
  • Smith, J.B. and Lamanna, M.C. 2006. An abelisaurid from the Late Cretaceous of Egypt: implications for theropod biogeography. Naturwissenschaften 93: 242-245.
  • Smith, J.B., Vann, D.R., and Dodson, P. 2005. Dental morphology and variation in theropod dinosaurs: implications for the taxonomic identification of isolated teeth. The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 285 (2): 699-736.
  • Sues, H.-D. 1977. The skull of Velociraptor mongoliensis, a small Cretaceous theropod dinosaur from Mongolia. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 51: 173-184.
  • Sues, H.-D., Frey, E., Martill, D.M., and Scott, D.M. 2002. Irritator chal-lengeri, a spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22: 535-547.
  • Turner, A.H., Makovicky, P.J., and Norell, M. 2012. A review of dromaeosaurid systematics and paravian phylogeny. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 371: 1-206.
  • Waldman, M. 1974. Megalosaurids from the Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) of Dorset. Palaeontology 17: 325-339.
  • Walker, A.D. 1964. Triassic reptiles from the Elgin Area: Ornithosuchus and the origin of carnosaurs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 248: 53-134.
  • Xu, X. and Wu, X.-C. 2001. Cranial morphology of Sinornithosaurus millenii Xu et al. 1999 (Dinosauria: Theropoda: Dromaeosauridae) from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38: 1739-1752.
  • Xu, X., Clark, J.M., Forster, C.A., Norell, M.A., Erickson, G.M., Eberth, D.A., Jia, C., and Zhao, Q. 2006. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China. Nature 439: 715-718.
  • Zanno, L.E. 2010. Osteology of Falcarius utahensis (Dinosauria: Thero-poda): characterizing the anatomy of basal therizinosaurs. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 196-230.
  • Zhao, X. and Xu, X. 1998. The oldest coelurosaurian. Nature 394: 234-235.
Rekord w opracowaniu
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.