Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2013 | 22 | 6 |
Tytuł artykułu

Evaluation of the sensitivity of organisms used in commercially available toxkits to selected cyanotoxins

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Recently, assays based on living organisms have become a frequently used tool in toxicity assessment of environmental samples containing cyanotoxins. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of different organisms from commercially available toxkits to three commonly detected cyanotoxins: microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin, and anatoxin-a. Cyanotoxins were used in purified forms, the highest concentration tested was 4 µg/ml. The most pronounced toxic effects were observed in the presence of cylindrospermopsin, with the lowest LC₅₀ (24h LC₅₀ = 0.27 µg/ml) estimated for the crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus. On the contrary, anatoxin-a was found to be toxic only to a small degree, with the EC₅₀ only calculated for Daphnia magna (24h EC₅₀ = 2.09 µg/ml; 48h EC₅₀ = 1.70 µg/ml). In that case the test endpoint was manifested as an inability to swim freely rather than lethality, so it was impossible to estimate LC₅₀ values. In turn, the most pronounced toxic effects of microcystin-LR were observed in D. magna after 48-h exposure with EC₅₀ estimated at 0.97 µg/ml. The lowest sensitivity to the cyanotoxins at studied concentrations was demonstrated in acute tests for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, and to some extent the algae Selenastrum capricornutum. It can be concluded, therefore, that organisms used as bioindicators vary considerably in their sensitivity to cyanotoxins and the obtained EC₅₀/LC₅₀ values are much higher than typical toxin concentrations in the environment.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Physiology and Ecotoxicology, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Konstantynow 1 I, 20-708 Lublin, Poland
  • 1. CHORUS I., BARTRAM J. Toxic cyanobacteria in water: A guide for their public health consequences, monitoring and management. WHO. St Edmundsbury Press, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, Great Britain, 1999.
  • 2. AGRAWAL M., YADAV S., PATEL C., RAIPURIA N., AGRAWAL M. K. Bioassay methods to identify the presence of cyanotoxins in drinking water supplies and their removal strategies. Euro. J. Exp. Biol. 2, 321, 2012.
  • 3. KOREIVIENĖ J., BELOUS O. Methods for cyanotoxins detection. Bot. Lituan. 18, 58, 2012.
  • 4. WOLSKA L., SAGAJDAKOW A., KUCZYŃSKA A., NAMIEŚNIK J. Application of ecotoxicological studies in integrated environmental monitoring: Possibilities and problems. Trends Anal. Chem. 26, 332, 2007.
  • 5. DeMOTT W. R., ZHANG Q. X., CARMICHAEL W. W. Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and purified toxins on the survival and feeding of a copepod and three species of Daphnia. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 1346, 1991.
  • 6. FERRAÕ-FILHO A. S., SOARES M. C., DE FREITAS MAGALHÃES V., AZEVEDO S. M. Biomonitoring of cyanotoxins in two tropical reservoirs by cladoceran toxicity bioassays. Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 72, 479, 2009.
  • 7. MARŠÁLEK B., BLÁHA L. Comparison of 17 biotests for detection of cyanobacterial toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. 19, 310, 2004.
  • 8. PIETSCH C., WIEGAND C., AME M. V., NICKLISCH A., WUNDERLIN D., PFLUGMACHER S. The effects of a cyanobacterial crude extract on different aquatic organisms: evidence for cyanobacterial toxin modulating factors. Environ. Toxicol. 16, 535, 2001.
  • 9. SOTERO-SANTOS R. B., SILVA C. R., VERANI N. F., NONAKA K. O., ROCHA O. Toxicity of a cyanobacteria bloom in Barra Bonita Reservoir (Middle Tietê River, São Paulo, Brazil). Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 64, 163, 2006.
  • 10. TÖRÖKNE A. K., LASZLO E., CHORUS I., SIVONEN K., BARBOSA F. A. R. Cyanobacterial toxins detected by Thamnotoxkit (a double blind experiment). Environ. Toxicol. 15, 549, 2000.
  • 11. TÖRÖKNE A. K., VASDINNEYI R., ASZTALOS B. M. A rapid microbiotest for the detection of cyanobacterial toxins. Environ. Toxicol. 22, 64, 2007.
  • 12. MANKIEWICZ-BOCZEK J., GAGAŁA I., KOKOCIŃSKI M., JURCZAK T., STEFANIAK K. Perennial toxigenic Planktothrix agardhii bloom in selected lakes of Western Poland. Environ. Toxicol. 26, 10, 2011.
  • 13. PAWLIK-SKOWROŃSKA B., SKOWROŃSKI T., PIRSZEL J., ADAMCZYK A. Relationship between cyanobacterial bloom composition and anatoxin-a and microcystin occurrence in the eutrophic dam reservoir (SE Poland). Pol. J. Ecol. 52, 479, 2004.
  • 14. CHORUS I. Current approaches to Cyanotoxin risk assessment, risk management and regulations in different countries. Federal Environmental Agency, Germany, 2012.
  • 15. HEDMAN C. J., KRICK W. R., KARNER PERKINS D. A., HARRAHY E. A., SONGOZONI W. C. New measurements of cyanobacterial toxins in natural waters using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. J. Environ. Qual. 37, 1817, 2008.
  • 16. PELAEZ M., ANTONIOU M. G., HE X., DIONYSIOU D. D., DE LA CRUZ A. A., TSIMELI K., TRIANTIS T., HISKIA A., KALOUDIS T., WILLIAMS C., et al. Sources and occurrence of cyanotoxins worldwide. In: FattaKassinos D, Bester K, Kümmerer K, editors. Xenobiotics in the urban water cycle. Mass flows, environmental processes, mitigation and treatment strategies, Springer, Chapter 6, pp. 101-127, 2010.
  • 17. KOKOCIŃSKI M., DZIGA D., SPOOF L., STEFANIAK K., JURCZAK T., MANKIEWICZ-BOCZEK J., MERILUOTO J. First report of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in the shallow, eutrophic lakes of western Poland. Chemosphere 74, 669, 2009.
  • 18. BLÁHOVÁ L., ORAVEC M., MARSALEK B., SEJNOHOVÁ L., SIMEK Z., BLÁHA L. The first occurrence of the cyanobacterial alkaloid toxin cylindrospermopsin in the Czech Republic as determined by immunochemical and LC/MS methods. Toxicon 5, 519, 2009.
  • 19. SPOOF L., BERG K. A., RAPALA J., LAHTI K., LEPISTÖ L., METCALF J. S., CODD G. A., MERILUOTO J. First observation of cylindrospermopsin in Anabaena lapponica isolated from the boreal environment (Finland). Environ. Toxicol. 21, 552, 2006.
  • 20. DAPHTOXKIT F™ magna. Crustacean toxicity screening test for freshwater. Standard Operational Procedure. Creasel, Deinze, Belgium, pp. 16, 1996.
  • 21. THAMNOTOXKIT F™. Crustacean toxicity screening test for freshwater. Standard Operational Procedure. Creasel, Deinze, Belgium, pp. 23, 1995.
  • 22. ROTOXKIT F™. Rotifer toxicity screening test for freshwater. Standard Operational Procedure. Creasel, Deinze, Belgium, pp. 12, 1992.
  • 23. PROTOXKIT F™. Freswater toxicity with a ciliate protozoan. Standard Operational Procedure. Creasel, Deinze, Belgium, pp. 18, 1998.
  • 24. ALGALTOXKIT F™. Freshwater toxicity test with microalgae. Standard Operational Procedure. Creasel, Deinze, Belgium, pp. 28, 1996.
  • 25. PERSOONE G., MARŠÁLEK B., BLINOVA I,. TÖRÖKNE A., ZARINA D., MANUSADZIANS L., NAŁĘCZ-JAWECKI G., TOFAN L., STEPANOVA N., TOTHOVA L., KOLAR B. A practical and userfriendly toxicity classification system with microbiotests for natural waters and wastewaters. Environ. Toxicol. 18, 395, 2003.
  • 26. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 4th edition. Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.
  • 27. WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. Washington State Provisional Recreational Guidance for Cylindrospermopsin and Saxitoxin. Final Report. 2011.
  • 28. SIEROSŁAWSKA A., RYMUSZKA A., KALINOWSKA R., SKOWROŃSKI T., BOWNIK A., PAWLIK-SKOWROŃSKA B. Toxicity of cyanobacterial bloom in the eutrophic dam reservoir (Southeast Poland). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 29, 556, 2010.
  • 29. TÖRÖKNE A. K. A new culture-free microbiotest for routine detection of cyanobacterial toxins. Environ. Toxicol. 14, 466, 1999.
  • 30. KEIL C., FORCHERT A., FASTNER J., SZEWZYK U., ROTARD W., CHORUS I., KRATKE R. Toxicity and microcystin content of extracts from a Planktothrix bloom and two laboratory strains. Wat. Res. 36, 2133, 2002.
  • 31. STEVENS D. K., KRIEGER R. I. Stability studies on the cyanobacterial nicotinic alkaloid anatoxin-a. Toxicon 29, 167, 1991.
  • 32. GILBERT J. J. Susceptibility of planktonic rotifers to a toxic strain of Anabaena flos-aquae. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1286, 1994.
  • 33. SILVA SOARES M. C., LÜRLING M., HUSZAR V. L. Responses of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorusto two tropical toxic cyanobacteria (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Microcystis aeruginosa) in pure and mixed diets with green algae. J. Plankton Res. 32, 999, 2010.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.