Metody badania powiązań pomiędzy komponentami środowiska geograficznego
Treść / Zawartość
Methods for the study of interdependences between the components of geographical environment
Review of the methods is based on two studies; one of these was concerned with the Białystok voivodeship of an area of over 23 thousand km², the other, made to a detail scale, was related to some four chosen model areas located within the boundaries of the Great Mazurian Lakes Country. As the basic fields used for the determination of the interdependences between components of the geographical environment the areas were assumed, which resulted from a transfer of alle the boundaries of the previously prepared analytical maps of individual components onto one cumulative map. (a fragment of the basic field map is shown in Fig. 1). As a measure of these interdependences was taken the number of basic fields within the boundaries of which a given interdependences was observed (Białystok voivodeship) or the surface on which simultaneously both components under analysis occurred (the Great Masurian Lakes Country). Following this procedure first the frequency of interdependences was determined in percentage of occurrence with respect to a total number of all the fields or a total surface area of the region under analysis (Fig. 2). The calculations were used, among others, to establish the predominant chains of relationships. Next the force of interdependences between the geographic environment components was examined. To determine its value, was use the entropy measure, the K. Pearson A. Chuporov multiple correlation index, and the intex of the force of interdependences. The entropy measure was evaluated after the formula applied among others, in the A. Armand's work (1975). Results were obtained which allow to generalize that the components which are the most strongly interlinked to the remaining ones are soils and the kind of substratum. The multiple correlation index was used by T. Aleksandrova in her work (1975). As a result of the calculations made it was established that the dominant are the following components: lithology, soils, and relief. As the methods advanced cannot be utilized in investigation of interlinkings between the faectures of components (in both cases the components examined had to be shared in to their features) was additionaly used, the index of the force of interdependences (A. Richling, 1976). The value of this index was evaluated for all the pairs of component features and on this basis a division was made of the interdependences into strong, average and weak ones. Strong interdependences between the depth of ground water and the remaining components are shown in Fig. 3. Attempts were also made to determine the direction of the interdependences with reference to the concept of Russian authors on the assumption that the slowly changing components determine those which undergo more rapid changes (of. Fig. 4). At the end the interior consistency index was calculated inside au types of basic fields. The index was evaluated as an arithmetic mean of the force of all the interdependences between the component features within all types of basic of fields. An illustration of the spatial distribution of fields with various values of the interior consistency index is Fig. 5. This index was considered as a measure of stability, thus of resistance of a given land area section to changes of any kind.
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