The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a new powerful model organism in biomedical research. Zebrafish possess all major neurotransmitter receptors, transporters, and enzymes, as well as, express a rich behavioral repertoire, thereby offering a wide spectrum of CNS disease models. However, our understanding of the role of zebrafish as a new emerging mainstream model in neuroscience research is still limited, resulting in incomplete utilization of its several major advantages: 1) phenotypic robustness, 2) ease of experimental manipulations, and 3) high‑throughput potential. Today, zebrafish complement other model systems in studying aggression, social interaction, and affective states. Here, I will summarize recent developments made using zebrafish models for the robust elucidation of the genes, molecules, and neurocircuits involved in behavior. Zebrafish possess substantial genetic homology to humans, and an easily manipulated genome to probe genetically-encoded behavior during development and in adulthood. Zebrafish models have contributed to our understanding of the effects of psychoactive drugs and produced innovative brain imaging tools and genetic models that are unique to zebrafish. Collectively, the utility of genetic, pharmacological, and behavioral manipulations in the zebrafish model allows for modeling of crucial brain disorders and diseases. I will highlight the progress made using zebrafish models and the promise they hold for future research to the wider neuroscience field at large. I will argue that zebrafish models occupy a vital niche within the neuroscience field, and when combined with more established rodent and primate models, zebrafish facilitate a more detailed understanding of the biological underpinnings of behavior. I will also provide a framework forthe expansion of zebrafish research within translational neuroscience, with the goal of providing novel treatments for brain diseases and an increased understanding of the nervous system.