Influence of melatonin on cell proliferation, antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes - an in vitro study
Melatonin, acting via MT1, MT2 and MT3 membrane receptors, influences central and peripheral regulatory mechanisms of energy homeostasis in mammals. In peripheral tissues, it evokes the pro-proliferative effect in a number of normal cells. Moreover, this hormone inhibits lipolysis in subcutaneous adipocytes in vitro and reduces free oxygen metabolites-induced damage acting directly, as a free radical scavenger, and indirectly, by stimulation of antioxidative enzyme activities. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin on cell proliferation, antioxidative enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell culture. We found that melatonin (10-3 and 10-6 M/L) stimulated cell proliferation in dose- and time-depending manner, and this effect was inhibited by a relatively selective MT2 receptor antagonist - luzindole (10-4 M/L). Melatonin, increased activities of manganese containing and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD) isoenzymes, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase after 24 h of incubation. In contrast, after 48 h of incubation, activities of all studied enzymes were lower than in the control group. There were no changes in MDA concentrations after 24 h of incubation, whereas, in melatonin-treated media, after 48 h of the experiment, MDA level was significantly decreased. Our results demonstrate that melatonin, acting via MT2 receptors, stimulates proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and this action could be due to the enhancement in antioxidative enzyme activities and attenuation of lipid peroxidation by this indole.