Phenotypic responses to water flow and wave exposure in aquatic plants
Treść / Zawartość
Plastic responses of 10 aquatic plant species from 5 rivers and 5 lakes in NW Poland were examined. Chara fragilis, C. delicatula, Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus, P. natans, Spirodela polyrhiza, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Salvinia natans, Nymphoides peltata and Juncus bulbosus were the subject of research. In the running water of rivers, rhizophytes were generally bigger and they allocated from 0.6% to 58.6% more biomass for anchoring in the substrate than in stagnant water (ox bow lakes). In both flow variants rhizophytes allocated a similar biomass fraction for generative reproduction. On the other hand, under the influence of water flow pleustophytes reduced the mass of an individual (Spirodela by 25%, Hydrocharis 67%, Salvinia 77%) and emergent structures (p<0.001), and the number of sporangia (p<0.001). In both flow variants the input of biomass to generative reproduction was the same (Salvinia), or it was greater in running water (Hydrocharis; an increase from 4.9±1.3% to 15.1±3.6%). Under the conditions of strong wave action, in comparison with the lack of this environmental factor, Chara delicatula was several times shorter (p<0.001). However, it was also stouter, and as a result it had similar mass. In the areas of wave action the plant allocated 88.8% of its mass for anchoring in the substrate, whereas when there were no waves, only 22.7%.