Effect of 6-week endurance training on hemodynamic and neurohormonal responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in healthy young men
Endurance training is considered as a factor impairing orthostatic tolerance although an improvement and lack of effect have been also reported. The mechanisms of the changes and their relation to initial tolerance of orthostasis are not clear. In the present study, effect of moderate running training on hemodynamic and neurohormonal changes during LBNP, a laboratory test simulating orthostasis, was investigated in subjects with high (HT) and low (LT) tolerance of LBNP. Twenty four male, healthy subjects were submitted to graded LBNP (-15, -30 and -50 mmHg) before and after training. During each test heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV) and blood pressure, plasma catecholamines, ACTH, adrenomedullin, atrial natriuretic peptide, and renin activity were determined. Basing on initial test, 13 subjects who withstood LBNP at -50 mmHg for 10 min were allocated into HT group and 11 subjects who earlier showed presyncopal symptoms to LT group. Training improved LBNP tolerance in six LT subjects. This was associated with attenuated rate of HR increase and SV decline (before training, at -30 mmHg DHR was 21 ± 4 beats/min and SV – -36± 8 ml while after training the respective values were 8 ± 4 beats/min and -11± 6 ml). No differences in hemodynamic response were found in HT subjects and those from LT group whose LBNP tolerance was unchanged. In neither group training affected neurohormonal changes except inhibition of plasma ACTH rise in subjects with improvement of LBNP tolerance. It is concluded that some subjects with low orthostatic tolerance may benefit from moderate training due to improvement of cardiac function regulation.