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Chytridiomikoza - smiertelne zagrozenie dla plazow

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Chytridiomycosis - a mortal danger for amphibians
Języki publikacji
Mikroskopijny grzyb pasożytniczy Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) wywołujący chytridiomikozę u płazów został formalnie opisany w 1999 roku. Choroba ta jest obecnie główną przyczyną wymierania wielu gatunków pochodzących z różnych obszarów na sześciu kontynentach. Cykl życiowy grzyba rozpoczyna się w komórkach epidermalnych, gdzie zoospory encystują się, ich witka ulega resorpcji i powstają zoosporangia, które pękając w sprzyjających warunkach uwalniają zoospory infekujące naskórek kolejnych osobników. Bd może wywoływać hiperkeratozę, co zaburza osmoregulację i oddychanie, a także może zatruwać płaza wydzielanymi toksynami. Wiele danych wskazuje na afrykańskie pochodzenie choroby, a za jej rozprzestrzenianie odpowiada ogólnoświatowy handel płazami i wprowadzanie obcych gatunków, szczególnie afrykańskiej platanny Xenopus leavis i północno-amerykańskiej żaby ryczącej Lithobates castesbeianus na nowe tereny. Ten niebezpieczny grzyb został w tym roku po raz pierwszy zidentyfikowany w Polsce. Niemiecko-szwajcarski zespół badawczy w 161 przebadanych próbkach znalazł 29 zarażonych żab zielonych Pelophylax sp. w pięciu miejscach naszego kraju
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd ) named in 1999, is a chytrid fungus that causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians and is a proximate driver of declines in global amphibian biodiversity. Its life cycle starts within the host epidermal cells where a zoospore forms a spherical thallus, which matures and produces new zoospores by dividing asexually. Then zoospores are released to the skin surface renewing the cycle of infection. It is believed that Bd may cause hyperkeratosis, thereby impeding respiration or water balance, or hosts might be poisoned by a fungal toxin. Bd infects an extraordinarily broad diversity of host species of both larval, juvenile, and adult stages, and appears to have the widest host range of any known pathogen being found on all continents except Antarctica. This observation is consistent with the argument that Bd is a recently evolved generalist emerging pathogen. Bd is diploid and highly heterozygous suggesting that the globalized lineage is the product of a mating between two nonidentical but closely related, heterothallic, parental strains. Bd infection was present in Xenopus spp. across sub-Saharan Africa by the 1930s, providing additional support for the ‘out of Africa’ hypothesis. Current evidence suggests that the world trade in amphibians, especially Xenopus leavis and Lithobates castesbeianus, has been a cause of a dynamic spread of the disease to new areas. Some species may serve as disease reservoirs because they can carry Bd infections without morbidity. This year this invasive fungus was for the first time identified in Poland. The German-Swiss research team examined 161 samples, of which 29 green frogs Pelophylax sp. collected in 5 sampling sites in Poland were infested (T. Ohst – pers. comm)
Opis fizyczny
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