Parthenogenesis and gamogenesis in seasonal succession of chydorids [Crustacea, Chydoridae] in three low-productive lakes as observed with activity traps
The aim of the present study was to determine the variance in abundance of parthenogenetic (asexual) and gamogenetic (sexual) individuals among chydorids (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae). The chydorids were monitored quantitatively with stationary activity traps in three lakes in southern Finland at 2-week intervals during the open-water season (early May–late October) in 2006. The lakes chosen for the study were low-productive forest lakes; Lake Kalatoin was dystrophic fish-free lake and lakes Tuhkuri and Iso Lehmalampi were oligotrophic. The abundance of trapped individuals varied widely among the lakes and during the sampling period presumably due to site-specific environmental conditions (available microhabitats, food, shelter). The abundance was highest in the dystrophic Lake Kalatoin (max. 43 × 10³ m⁻² trapday⁻¹ in June) and clearly lower in the two oligotrophic lakes (max. 8.5 × 10³ m⁻² trapday⁻¹ in Lake Tuhkuri in mid-July and max. 2.2 × 10³ m⁻² trapday⁻¹ in Lake Iso Lehmalampi in mid- October). The chydorids exhibited unique sexual reproduction patterns among sampling sites and populations as the abundance of trapped gamogenetic individuals differed, suggesting habitatand population-specific patterns in gamogenesis. In lakes Kalatoin and Iso Lehmalampi gamogenetic individuals were caught in the traps during the autumn with maxima of 2.2 and 1.6 ×10³ m⁻² trapday⁻¹ , respectively, but in Lake Tuhkuri no gamogenetic individuals were encountered during the autumn. Although Alonella nana (Baird) was most abundantly trapped species in all the lakes, its gamogenetic individuals were trapped numerously only in Lake Kalatoin (max. ca. 1.5 ×10³ m⁻² trapday⁻¹ ). The results suggest that gamogenesis in chydorids is a more complex phenomenon than previously believed.
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