Economic development of some highly developed countries reduced the share of agriculture in Gross Domestic Product down to 1-2%. Such a tendency provoked some economists to formulate the opinions that agriculture in those countries is marginal and obsolete. This opinion is based on false or misleading assumptions. Even in the most developed countries, including European Union, agriculture plays very important role and fulfills many key functions. Contemporary agriculture is a source of market goods, but also public goods and so called „merit goods". In the European Union we can observe „revival of rurality" and appreciation of agriculture in functioning of the society and in preserving environmental and cultural values.