The role of free, membrane-bound and tightly-bound polysomes in precocious germination of triticale caryopses
During the development and ripening of triticale caryopses cv. Grado, a gradual increase in the precocious germination ability of the grain was observed. After 48 hrs of incubation (at 22 °C under optimal moisture conditions for germination in darkness) of the freshly-collected caryopses of different ripeness, the percentage of polysomes in the ribosomal fraction isolated from embryonic tissue in buffer A + PTE (to yield released FP + MBP) was about 15 % in the sample of grains gathered at the milk-ripeness stage, over 27 % at the wax-ripeness stage and over 63 % at the full-ripeness stage. Percentages of polysomes solubilized in the pellets in buffer U (TBP, putative cytoskeleton-bound polysomes), were always higher and amounted to about 36 % at the milk-ripeness stage, 58 % at the wax-stage and 68 % at the full-ripeness stage. The incorporation of 3H-uridine into polysomal RNA (mRNA+rRNA) of triticale embryos increased during the development and maturation of the caryopses subjected to germination from about 19 and 33 Bq/mg RNA at the milk-ripeness in the FP+MBP and the TBP to 220 and 312 Bq·mg⁻¹ RNA at the full-ripeness stage, respectively. The effect of the pericarp and other tissues surrounding the embryo was also investigated. Removal of the outer pericarp strongly stimulated germination of unripe caryopses in the middle period of development e.g. 32 and 39 DAF. The strongest stimulatory effect on transcription was found in the embryo during germination, in all samples of caryopses of various degrees of ripeness, by isolating it completely from the pericarp, testa and endosperm. The high percentage of polysomes in the TBP and the high incorporation 3H-uridine into RNA in that fraction during precocious germination suggests an important role for this sub-population of polysome (and the proteins synthesised by them) in initiation of precocious germination processes.
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