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1995 | 31,Suppl.B |
Tytuł artykułu

Pomiedzy rownoscia a wydajnoscia. Dylematy indyjskiej polityki rolnej

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Celem pracy jest przedstawienie dylematów indyjskiej polityki rolnej od uzyskania przez ten kraj niepodległości do lat dziewięćdziesiątych. Autor w indyjskiej polityce rolnej wyodrębnił Cztery okresy; reforma rolna oraz program rozwoju wspólnot (koniec lat czterdziestych do początku lat sześćdziesiątych); strategia intensywnego rozwoju wsi i „Zielonej Rewolucji" (początek lat sześćdziesiątych do potowy lat siedemdziesiątych); program zintegrowanego rozwoju wsi (polowa lat siedemdziesiątych do końca lat osiemdziesiątych); nowa polityka reform rynkowych (lata dziewięćdziesiąte). System ekonomiczny ukształtowany przez Nehru w latach pięćdziesiątych pozostał w swej istocie nie zmieniony do końca lat osiemdziesiątych. Zawierał on liczne elementy zaczerpnięte z gospodarki radzieckiej: zasadę centralnego planowania, priorytet dla rozwoju przemysłu, nadmierną centralizację, nacisk na rozwój sektora publicznego i inne. Cel polityki rolnej minionych dziesięcioleci - rozwój oparty na sprawiedliwych zasadach i wyeliminowanie ubóstwa - pozostał nieosiągnięty. Wzrastająca nieefektywność całego systemu gospodarczego doprowadziła do podjęcia reform w kierunku gospodarki rynkowej.
EN
The objective of this work is to present an overview of the dilemmas of Indian agricultural policies since the Independence to the 1990s. Four stages of agricultural policies were specified: land reforms and the Community Development Programme (late 40s to early 60s); strategy of an intensive development and the "Green Revolution" (early 60s to mid-70s); the Integrated Rural Development Programmes and related programmes (raid-70s to late 80s); emergence of new economic policy and market reforms (the 90s). It is visible that the economic system of India framed by Nehru in the 50s remained virtually unchanged until the end of the 80s. Many elements of the Nehru's vision - typical of the Soviet-type socialist economy are adopted: the principle of central planning, priority to the industry, excessive centralisation, stress on the public sector, etc. The aim of the rural policy to reach growth-with-justice and to eradicate poverty has remained unobtainable and inefficiency of the system has increased, leading to the shift towards the market economy reforms.
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s.1-118,rys.,tab.,bibliogr.
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