The article presented some major achievements in buckwheat cultivation in Poland over the last twenty years. During this period a considerable progress in breeding works has been observed. It is very important because overcoming the barriers of low yielding depends on the genotype and a complicated biology of flowering. Buckwheat breeding should aim - among the other - at improving the plant resistance to spilling and better regularity of fruit ripening, thus limiting yield losses. Further studies should be directed towards developing a morphological model of the plant and predicting the yields. Knowledge of interaction between agrotechnical measures and environmental conditions in the regions of buckwheat cultivation should provide a basis to developmg different variants of buckwheat breeding technology.