In modern agricultural production linseed is an example of crop with multipurpose applications as it provides the raw material for various industries, such as chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, food, and paper making industry. Moreover, the whole seeds and linseed meal are used as the food and animals' fodder. Linseed is cultivated mainly in order to utilize potential productivity of currently regionalized linseed cultivars grown mainly in Canada and in Hungary. It has been proved that the linseed is particularly abundant in dietetic fibres, mucilage, lignanes, phenolic compounds and essential unsaturated fatty acids. Linseed reveals also dietetic, purgative and protective effects, being particularly useful for treatment of alimentary tract diseases. Linseed as an effective and cheap source of α-linolenic acid, may be used as a food supplement for humans. Currently the research works have been undertaken on linseed, linseed cake and solvent extracted linseed cake utilization in animal nutrition. In majority of European countries linseed is treated as an alternative crop, however in some countries attempts were made to extend the area under this crop to meet the growing requirement for linseed products.