Patterns were examined in published karyological data for 1451 moss species (approximately 16% of the total number of species) from all regions of the world. Assuming that x = 7 is the original basic chromosome number in mosses, all gametophytic numbers n > 9 were supposed to mark polyploids. It was found that 84% of the species had undergone polyploidy in their history. It is assumed that most polyploids in mosses are autopolyploids. Among the polyploids, 28% are high polyploids (species with n > 15). In pleurocarpous mosses, 16% are high polyploids, whereas in acrocarpous mosses 27% are high polyploids. There is no difference in frequencies of high polyploids between the two subgroups of acrocarpous mosses: Haplolepideae-acrocarpae (26%) and Diplolepideae- acrocarpae (27%). A clear correlation was found between the frequency of high polyploids (n > 15) and latitude. The frequency of high polyploids increases from the equator towards the North and South Poles. The percentage of high polyploids jumps dramatically from tropical and subtropical zones (- 13%) to temperate and cold climatic zones (over 30%).