Species richness and abundance of insects during post-fire succession of a Pinus brutia forest in Mediterranean region
In the Marmaris National Park (located on the Mediterranean coast of SW Turkey) mostly covered with Pinus brutia forests, four sites were selected to study the postfire successional trends in vegetation and insect communities. The sites represented: 1, 5, and 21 years after fire as well as control site (more than 45 years after fire). On the study plots (0.5 ha) the insects were collected with the sweep net swung along three transects each of 100 m length, in monthly intervals between August 2000 and September 2001. The number of plant species decreased from 41 to 32 along succession, as well as the number of stage-specific species but the mean height of vegetation increased with successional stage. The abundance and species richness of herbivorous insects decreased along succession as well as two main herbivore groups – xylophagous and sap-feeders. However, no major changes were found between the sites in terms of abundance or species richness of predators. This decrease in herbivorous forms may be a result of changes in the plant architecture and vegetation structure between post-fire successional stages.
- Andersen A.N., Muller W.J. 2000 – Arthropod responses to experimental fire regimes in an Australian tropical savannah; ordinal-level analysis – Austral Ecol. 25 (2): 199–209.
- Anderson R.C., Leahy T., Dhillion S.S. 1989 – Numbers and biomass of selected insect groups on burned and unburned sand prairie – Am. Midl. Nat. 122 (1): 151–162.
- Anonymous 2004 – Assessment report of forest fires control actions in 2004 – Departmentof Forest Protection and Forest Fire Control, General Directorate of Forestry, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry, 102 pp. (in Turkish).
- Bilgili E., Saglam B. 2003 – Fire behavior in maquis fuels in Turkey – Forest Ecol. Manag. 184: 201–207.
- Booth R.G., Cox M.L., Madge R.B. 1990 – IIE Guides to insects of importance to man 3. Coleoptera – International Institute of Entomology (An Institute of CAB International), London, UK, 384 pp.
- Borror D.J., Triplehorn C.A., Johnson N.F. 1989 – An introduction to the study of insects – Sixth edition, Saunders Collage Publishing, USA, 875 pp.
- Bosch J. 1992 – Floral biology and pollinators of 3 co-occurring Cistus species (Cistaceae) – Bot. J. of the Linn. Soc. 109: 39–55.
- Brown V.K. 1985 – Insect herbivores and plant succession – Oikos, 44: 17–22.
- Brown V.K., Southwood T.R.E. 1983 – Trophic diversity, niche breadth and generation times of exopterygote insects in a secondary succession – Oecologia, 56: 220–225.
- Broza M., Poliakov D., Weber S., Izhaki I. 1993 – Soil microarthropods on post-fire pine forest on Mount Carmel, Israel – Water. Sci. Technol. 27 (7–8): 533–538.
- Kaynaş B.Y., Gurkan B. 2004 – The changes of beetle community structure along a successional gradient in Pinus brutia ecosystem (In: Proceedings of the10th International Conference on Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems, Eds. M. Arianoutsou, V. P. Papanastasis) – Rhodes Greece, (CD-Rom).
- Kaynaş B.Y., Gurkan B. 2007 – Species diversity of butterflies in Pinus brutia forest ecosystems after fire – Entomol. News, 118 (1): 31–40.
- Keeley J.E. 1991 – Seed germination and life history syndromes in the California chaparral – Bot. Rev. 57: 81–116.
- Kruess A., Tscharntke T. 2002 – Grazing Intensity and the diversity of grasshoppers, butterflies, and trap-nesting bees and wasps – Conserv. Biol. 16 (6): 1570–1580.
- Lawton J.H. 1983 – Plant architecture and the diversity of phytophagous insects – Annu. Rev. Entomol. 28: 23–39.
- Martinez-Sanchez J. J., Herranz J.M., Guerra J., Trabaud L. 1997 – Influence of fire on plant regeneration in a Stipa tenacissima L. community in the Sierra Larga Mountain Range (SE Spain) – Israel J. Plant Sci. 45 (4): 309–316.
- Moretti M., Zanini M., Conedera M. 2002 – Faunistic and floristic post-fire succession in southern Switzerland: an integrated analysis with regard to fire frequency and time since the last fire (In: Proceedings of the IV International Conference on Forest Fire Research, Ed. D. X. Viegas) – MillPress – Rotterdam, Netherlands, (CD-Rom)
- Murdoch W.W., Evans F.C., Peterson C.H. 1972 – Diversity and pattern in plants and insects – Ecology, 53 (5): 819–829.
- Ne’eman G., Lahav H., Izhaki I. 1992 – Spatial pattern of seedlings 1 year after fire in a Mediterranean pine forest – Oecologia, 91 (3): 365–370.
- Oktem E. 1987 – Introduction (In: Turkish Red Pine, Ed. E. Oktem) – Forestry Research Institute Publications, Handbook Series No:2 – Ankara, pp. 9–10.
- Pausas J.G. 1999 – Mediterranean vegetation dynamics: modelling problems and functional types – Plant. Ecol. 140 (1): 27–39.
- Petanidou T., Ellis W.N. 1993 – Pollinating fauna of a phryganic ecosystem: composition and diversity – Biodivers. Lett. 1 (1): 9–22.
- Prodon R., Fons R., Athias-Binche F. 1987 – The impact of fire on animal communities in Mediterranean Area (In: The Role of Fire in Ecological Systems, Ed. L. Trabaud) – SPA Academic Publishing – The Hague, pp. 121–157.
- Radea C., Arianoutsou M. 2000 – Cellulose decomposition rates and soil arthropod community in a Pinus halepensis Mill. Forest of Greece after wildfire – Eur. J. Soil Biol. 36 (1): 57–64.
- Siemann E. 1998 – Experimental tests of effects of plant productivity and diversity on grassland arthropod diversity – Ecology 79 (6): 2057–2070.
- Siemann E., Haarstad J., Tilman D. 1999 – Dynamics of plant and arthropod diversity during old field succession – Ecography, 22 (4): 406–414.
- Smith J.K. (ed) 2000 – Wildland Fire in Ecosystems, Effects of Fire on Fauna. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR- 42-volume1, 83 pp.
- Southwood T.R.E., Brown V.K., Reader P.M. 1979 – The relationship of plant and insect diversities in succession – Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 12: 327–348.
- Spanos I.A., Daskalakou E.N., Thanos C.A. 2000 – Postfire, natural regeneration of Pinus brutia forets in Thasos island, Greece – Acta Oecol. 21: 13–20.
- Tavşanoğlu C. 2002 – Studies on post-fire secondary plant succession in Marmaris National Park – Msc thesis, Hacettepe University, Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences (in Turkish with English abstract) 118 pp.
- Tavşanoğlu C., Gurkan B. 2005 – Post-fire dynamics of Cistus spp. in a Pinus brutia forest – Turk. J. Bot. 29: 337–343.
- Thanos C.A., Marcou S., Christodoulakis D., Yannitsaros A. 1989 – Early post-fire regeneration in Pinus brutia forest ecosystems of Samos Island (Greece) – Acta Oecol.-Oec. Plant. 10 (1): 79–94.
- Trabaud L. 1994 – Postfire Plant Community Dynamics in the Mediterranean Basin (In: The Role of Fire in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems, Eds. J.M. Moreno, W.C. Oechel – Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 1–15.
- Trabaud L. 2000 – Post-fire regeneration of Pinus halepensis forests in the West Mediterranean (In: Ecology, Biogeography and Managenement of Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia Forest Ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin, Eds. G. Ne’eman, L. Trabaud) – Backhuys Publishers – Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 257–268.
- Trabaud L., Grosman J., Walter T. 1985 – Recovery of burnt Pinus helepensis Mill. Forests. I. Understorey and litter phytomass development after wildfire – Forest. Ecol. Manag. 12: 269–277.
- Warren S. D., Scifres C. J., Teel P. D. 1987 – Response of grassland arthropods to burning: a review – Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 19: 105–130.
- Whelan R.J. 1995 – The Ecology of Fire, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp. 346
- Wikars L.O. 2002 – Dependence on fire in wood-living insects: An experiment with burned and unburned spruce and birch logs – J. Insect Conserv. 6: 1–12.
- Wikars L.O., Schimmel J. 2001 – Immediate effects of fire-severity on soil invertebrates in cut and uncut pine forests – Forest. Ecol. Manag. 141: 189–200.