During last 50 years particularly significant progress was observed in economically important traits of animal production. It was connected with the utilization of population genetics in animal breeding achievements and implementation of biotechnology into animal reproduction. In consequence the costs of production went down while the food of animal origin cheapened considerably. In the developed countries these products became commonly available. At present the biological progress is a major factor influencing the process of upgrading animal production effectiveness. As compared to the level from before 50 years, milk yield of holstein friesian cows, the breed most widely disseminated all over the world, increased more than threef old and at present averages 8000-9000 kg per lactation. In relation to meat performance of different animal species, intensive selection was focused on growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass content of meat and fat tissue. The progress achieved in this field was greatly impressive. In case of the broilers fattening period was shortened over threefold and recently does not exceed 6 weeks. Similar effects, perhaps not so spectacular, were obtained in pig production. A fattening cycle was considerably shortened, feed efficiency improved distinctly, while the carcass content of lean meat increased by approximately 50%. However, the biological progress was accompanied by a change for the worse in animal health. In some cases a decrease in quality of animal products is observed, especially concerning their organoleptic properties.