Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2010 | 70 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

Why the leash constrains the dog: the impact of semantic associations on sentence production

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
The production of language is one of the most complex and amazing skills in humans. Increasing evidence demonstrated that associative relations (e.g., car - garage) play an important role during concept formation but during speech production the effects and processing of associations are highly debated. Hence, the present study investigated the impact of associations and different SOAs on the production of sentences (Experiment 1) and on naming objects (Experiment 2). In an adapted version of the picture-word interference task, participants were asked to name two pictures using a standardized sentence (e.g., “The car is to the left of the trousers”). Thereby, a simultaneous (SOA = 0 ms) or slightly preceding (SOA = -150 ms) auditory or visual distractor had to be ignored. Distractors were related to the first noun (for example: “The car is to the left to the trousers”, distractor: “garage”) or to the second noun (distractor: “belt”) or unrelated to both nouns (distractor: “bottle ”) of the sentence. At simultaneous presentation, visual and auditory distractors related to the first noun of the sentence prolonged naming responses (i.e., interference). For slightly preceding distractors, only visual presentation induced interference for the first noun of the sentence. During no condition, longer naming responses were found for the second noun of the sentence. These effects suggest that associatively related concepts are active during speech production and can be competitors, i.e., they lead to semantic interference. In Experiment 2, subjects had to name an object (e.g., car) while ignoring a visually presented distractor (e.g., motor). The stimulus set was the same as in Experiment 1. The results showed a facilitation effect if the distractor and the target were associatively related. Overall, the current results provide new insight in the models of speech production: while during single word production, associations facilitate naming, they interfere during sentence production. Hence, associations have an important influence on producing speech but the impact is varied by the context, i.e., single word or sentential.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
  • JARA - Translational Brain Medicine
  • Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
  • Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Julich
  • JARA - Translational Brain Medicine
  • Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems CSE, Cambridge, MA, USA
  • Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
  • Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
  • Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
  • JARA - Translational Brain Medicine
  • Department of Psychiatry und Psychotherapy, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany
  • Department of Psychiatry und Psychotherapy, Section Neuroimaging, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany
  • Abel S, Dressel K, Bitzer R, Kummerer D, Mader I, Weiller C, Huber W (2009) The separation of processing stages in a lexical interference fMRI-paradigm. Neuroimage 44: 1113-1124.
  • Abdel Rahman R, Melinger A (2007) When bees hamper the production of honey: lexical interference from associates in speech production. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 33: 604-614.
  • Abdel Rahman R, Melinger A (2009) Semantic context effects in language production: a swinging lexical network proposal and review. Lang Cogn Process 24: 713-734.
  • Alario FX, Segui J, Ferrand L (2000) Semantic and associative priming in picture naming. Q J Exp Psychol A 53: 741-764.
  • Baayen RH, Piepenbrock R, Rijn Hv (1993) The CELEX Lexical Database [CD-ROM]. Version Release 1. Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
  • Costa A, Alario FX, Caramazza A (2005) On the categorical nature of the semantic interference effect in the picture-word interference paradigm. Psychon Bull Rev 12: 125-131.
  • Costa A, Navarette E, Alario FX (2006) Accessing object names when producing complex noun phrases: implica­tions for models of lexical access. Cognitiva 18: 3-23.
  • Damian MF, Martin RC (1999) Semantic and phonological codes interact in single word production. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 25: 345-361.
  • Dell GS (1986) A spreading-activation theory of retrieval in sentence production. Psychol Rev 93: 283-321.
  • Devlin JT, Russell RP, Davis MH, Price CJ, Moss HE, Fadili MJ, Tyler LK (2002) Is there an anatomical basis for category-specificity? Semantic memory studies in PET and fMRI. Neuropsychologia 40: 54-75.
  • Glaser WR, Dungelhoff FJ (1984) The time course of pic­ture-word interference. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 10: 640-654.
  • Griffin ZM (2001) Gaze durations during speech reflect word selection and phonological encoding. Cognition 82: B1-B14.
  • Grossman M, Koenig P, DeVita C, Glosser G, Alsop D, Detre J, Gee J (2002) The neural basis for category-specific knowledge: an fMRI study. Neuroimage 15: 936-948.
  • Hantsch A, Jescheniak JD, Schriefers H (2005) Semantic competition between hierarchically related words during speech planning. Mem Cognit 33: 984-1000.
  • Hantsch A, Jescheniak JD, Schriefers H (2009) Distractor modality can turn semantic interference into semantic facilitation in the picture-word interference task: implica­tions for theories of lexical access in speech production. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 35: 1443-1453.
  • Heij W, Hof E (1995) Picture-word interference increases with target-set size. Psychol Res 58: 119-133.
  • Indefrey P, Levelt WJ (2004) The spatial and temporal sig­natures of word production components. Cognition 92: 101-144.
  • Jescheniak JD, Schriefers H, Hantsch A (2001) Semantic and phonological activation in noun and pronoun produc­tion. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27: 1058-1078.
  • Jescheniak JD, Schriefers H, Hantsch A (2003) Utterance format affects phonological priming in the picture-word task: implications for models of phonological encoding in speech production. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 29: 441-454.
  • Kircher TT, Sass K, Sachs O, Krach S (2009) Priming words with pictures: Neural correlates of semantic associations in a cross-modal priming task using fMRI. Hum Brain Mapp 30: 4116-4128.
  • Levelt WJ (1989) Speaking: from intention to articulation. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.
  • Levelt WJ (1999) Models of word production. Trends Cogn Sci 3: 223-232.
  • Levelt WJ, Meyer AS (2000) Word for word: multiple lexi­cal access in speech production. Eur J Cogn Psychol 12: 433-452.
  • Levelt WJ (2001) Spoken word production: a theory of lexical access. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 13464­13471.
  • Lin EL, Murphy GL (2001) Thematic relations in adults' concepts. J Ex Psychol Gen 130: 3-28.
  • Lupker SJ (1979) The semantic nature of response competi­tion in the picture-word interference task. Mem Cogn 7: 485-495.
  • Mahon BZ, Costa A, Peterson R, Vargas KA, Caramazza A (2007) Lexical selection is not by competition: a reinter­pretation of semantic interference and facilitation effects in the picture-word interference paradigm. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 33: 503-35.
  • Melinger A, Weber A (2006) Database of noun associations for German. [Avaiable online: http://www.coli.uni-saar-].
  • Meyer AS (1996) Lexical access in phrase and sentence production: results from picture-word interference exper­iments. J Mem Lang 35: 477-496.
  • Meyer AS (1997) Conceptual influences on grammatical planning units. Lang Cogn Process 12: 859-864.
  • Meyer AS, Sleiderink AM, Levelt WJ (1998) Viewing and naming objects: eye movements during noun phrase pro­duction. Cognition 66: B25-B33.
  • Meyer AS, van der Meulen FF, Brooks A (2004) Eye move­ments during speech planning: talking about present and remembered objects. Vis Cogn 11: 553-576.
  • Morsella E, Miozzo M (2002) Evidence for a cascade model of lexical access in speech production. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 28: 555-563.
  • Neely JH. (1991) Semantic priming effects in visual word rec­ognition: a selective review of current findings and theories. In: Basic processes in reading: visual word recognition (Besner D, and Humphreys GW, eds.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Publishers, Hillsdale, NJ, USA. p. 264­336.
  • Oldfield RC (1971) The assessment and analysis of handed­ness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia 9: 97-113.
  • Prior A, Bentin S (2003) Incidental formation of episodic associations: the importance of sentential context. Mem Cognit 31: 306-316.
  • Ratcliff R (1993) Methods for dealing with reaction time outliers. Psychol Bull 114: 510-532.
  • Roelofs A (1992) A spreading-activation theory of lemma retrieval in speaking. Cognition 42: 107-142.
  • Roelofs A (1997) The WEAVER model of word-form encoding in speech production. Cognition 64: 249-284.
  • Sachs O, Weis S, Krings T, Huber W, Kircher T (2008a) Categorical and thematic knowledge representation in the brain: Neural correlates of taxonomic and thematic con­ceptual relations. Neuropsychologia 46: 409-418.
  • Sachs O, Weis S, Zellagui N, Huber W, Zvyagintsev M, Mathiak K, Kircher T (2008b) Automatic processing of semantic relations in fMRI: neural activation during semantic priming of taxonomic and thematic categories. Brain Res 1218: 194-205.
  • Sailor K, Brooks PJ, Bruening PR, Seiger-Gardner L, Guterman M (2009) Exploring the time course of seman­tic interference and associative priming in the picture- word interference task. Q J Exp Psychol 62: 789-801.
  • Sass K, Krach S, Sachs O, Kircher T (2009a) Lion - tiger - stripes: neural correlates of indirect semantic priming across processing modalities. Neuroimage 45: 224-236.
  • Sass K, Sachs O, Krach S, Kircher T (2009b) Taxonomic and thematic categories: Neural correlates of categoriza­tion in an auditory-to-visual priming task using fMRI. Brain Res 1270: 78-87.
  • Schriefers H, Meyer AS, Levelt WJM (1990) Exploring the Time Course of Lexical Access in Language Production: Picture-Word Interference Studies. J Mem Lang 29: 86-102.
  • Smith M, Wheeldon L (2004) Horizontal information flow in spoken sentence production. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 30: 675-686.
  • Starreveld PA, Heij W (1996) Time-course analysis of semantic and orthograhpic context effects in picture naming. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 22: 896­918.
  • Taylor JK, Burke DM (2002) Asymmetric aging effects on semantic and phonological processes: naming in the picture-word interference task. Psychol Aging 17: 662­676.
  • Tyler LK, Moss HE, Durrant-Peatfield MR, Levy JP (2000) Conceptual structure and the structure of concepts: a dis­tributed account of category-specific deficits. Brain Lang 75: 195-231.
Rekord w opracowaniu
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.