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Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acids supplementation

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Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with a single pair of conjugated double bonds. The major natural CLA isomer is 18:2 cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11) linoleic acid, or rumenic acid (RA). Chemically synthesized CLA is also available, mostly as a mixture of RA and 18:2 trans-10, cis-12 (t10, c12) isomers in equal amounts (50:50). Consumption of ruminant meat (beef and lamb) and dairy products (milk and cheese) is the main source of dietary exposure to CLA. Despite numerous studies on animal and human models (tumorigenesis, obesity, immune response) it has not been established whether additional supplementation of CLA is of benefit. Moreover, some studies, conducted both in animals and in humans, reveal that CLA isomers may induce insulin resistance. Presently, balanced diet rich in CLA from natural sources is recommended. The purpose of this review was to sum up the results available in the literature.
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