Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2010 | 60 | 3 |
Tytuł artykułu

Carbonyl compounds in aronia spirits

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
The effect of quality of raw materials, methods of their processing, pH of mashes, and yeast strains on the concentration of carbonyl compounds in aronia distillates was determined. Acetaldehyde dominated aliphatic carbonyl compounds that were contained in the tested samples of aronia spirits. Its concentration varied between 0.100 g and 0.330 g/L spirit 100% v/v. Crotonaldehyde was not found in the tested samples. Distillates derived from frozen aronia berries contained almost twice more acetaldehyde (0.230 g/L spirit 100% v/v) than that obtained from fresh fruits. An adjustment of pH of aronia mashes from 3.4 to 4.5 resulted in an increase in the concentration of carbonyl compounds (in particular of acetaldehyde) from 0.304 to 0.400 g/L spirit 100% v/v. Thermal processing of fruit pulp decreased the concentration of butyraldehyde and increased concentrations of valeric and isovaleric aldehydes. Spirits produced from mashes fermented by yeast S. bayanus contained approximately 43% more acetaldehyde (0.330 g/L spirit 100% v/v) than that obtained from mashes fermented by mixed strains: Burgund, Bordeaux, and Steinberg. Carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) and acetals accounted for approximately 41-53% compounds identified by GC/MS. Aronia spirits contained diethyl acetals of butyric, isovaleric, caproic, ethoxypropionic and 2-furfuryl aldehydes. Also the “mixed” acetals of acetaldehyde and ethyl, propyl, and amyl alcohols were detected. Aronia spirits were found to contain furfural, benzaldehyde, vanillin and furan compounds, such as dihydro–3,5–dimethyl–2(3H)– furanone.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Spirit and Yeast Technology, Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 171/173, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
  • 1. Balcerek M., Szopa J.S., Optimierung der Gewinnungstechnologie von Aronia-Spirituosen – Teil 1. Auswahl der Gärungsbedingungen für die Aronia-Maischen. Dtsch. Lebensm. Rundsch., 2002, 98, 326–331 (in German).
  • 2. Balcerek M., Szopa J.S., Optimierung der Gewinnungstechnologie von Aronia Spirituosen Teil 2: Einfluss der Maischegärungs-Bedindungen auf die Zusammensetzung der flüchtigen Inhaltstoffe. Dtsch. Lebensm. Rundsch., 2005, 101, 16–19 (in German).
  • 3. Balcerek M., Szopa J.S., Major volatile compounds and ethyl carbamate changes of content. Dtsch. Lebensm. Rundsch., 2008, 104, 288–292.
  • 4. Barroso C., Rodriguez M., Guillen D., Perez-Bustamante J., Analysis of low molecular mass phenolic compounds, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural in Brandy de Jerez by high-performance liquid chromatography –diode array detection with direct injection. J. Chrom. A., 1996, 724, 125–129.
  • 5. Boulton R.B., Singleton V.L., Bisson L.F., Kunkee R.E., Principles and practices of winemaking. 1996, New York: Chapman & Hall, pp. 136–137, 448–473.
  • 6. Burini G., Coli R., Determination of formaldehyde in spirits by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection after derivatization. Anal. Chim. Acta, 2004, 511 155–158.
  • 7. Czupryński B., Kłosowski G., Kotarska K., Carbonyl compounds in raw spirits. Przem. Ferm. Owoc. Warz., 1997, 41, 14–16 (in Polish).
  • 8. Farris G.A., Fatichenti F., Deiana P., Madau G., Functional selection of low sulfur dioxideacceptor producers among 30 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. J. Ferm. Technol., 1983, 61, 201–204.
  • 9. Goj T., Carbonyl compounds in raw and rectified spirits derived from various raw materials and their impact on sensory properties, part 1. Carbonyl compounds in raw spirits. Przem. Ferm. Owoc. Warz., 1990a, 34, 6–8 (in Polish).
  • 10. Goj T., Carbonyl compounds in raw and rectified spirits derived from various raw materials and their impact on sensory properties, part 2. Carbonyl compounds in rectified spirits. Przem. Ferm. Owoc. Warz., 1990b, 34, 10–12 (in Polish).
  • 11. Goj T., Dominating carbonyl compounds in spirits and alcoholic beverages. Przem. Ferm. Owoc. Warz., 1992, 36, 5–7 (in Polish).
  • 12. Goj T., Comparison of carbonyl compounds determination methods in natural vodkas and raw spirits. Unpublished materials, ZBR Polmos S. A. Konin, 1995 (in Polish).
  • 13. Goj T. Chemical impurities contained in spirits. Przem. Ferm. Owoc. Warz., 1998, 42, 18–21 (in Polish).
  • 14. Hashizume K., Samuta T., Green odorants of grape cluster stem and their ability to cause a wine stemmy flavor. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1997, 45, 1333–1337.
  • 15. Henschke P.A., Jiranek V., Yeasts – metabolism of nitrogen compounds. 1993, in: Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology (ed. G.H. Fleet). Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 77–164.
  • 16. Hirvi T., Honkanen E., Analysis of the volatile constituents of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa Ell.). J. Sci. Food Agric., 1985, 36, 808–810.
  • 17. Kłosowski G., Czupryński B., Reasons of formation of carbonyl compounds with particular consideration of acetaldehyde. Przem. Ferm. Owoc. Warz., 1993, 37, 8–10 (in Polish).
  • 18. Kreipe W., Ost-West–Austausch von Whisky und Wodka. Die Branntweinwirtschaft, 1963, 103, 439–441.
  • 19. Ledauphin J., Guichard H., Sain-Clair J.F., Picoche B., Barillier D., Chemical and sensorial aroma characterization of freshly distilled calvados. 2. Identification of volatile compounds and key odorants. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 433–442.
  • 20. Ledauphin J., Sain-Clair J.F., Lablanquié O., Guichard H., Fournier N., Guichard E., Barillier D., Identification of trace volatile compounds in freshly distilled calvados and cognac using preparative separations coupled with gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52, 5124–5134.
  • 21. Ledauphin J., Basset B., Cohen S., Payot T., Barillier D., Identification of trace volatile compounds in freshly distilled Calvados and Cognac: Carbonyl and sulphur compounds. J. Food Comp. Anal., 2006, 19, 28–40.
  • 22. Łączyński B., Reasons of too high concentration of aldehydes in raw spirits and methods of prevention in agricultural distilleries. Przem. Ferm. Owoc. Warz., 1995, 39, 13–14 (in Polish).
  • 23. Martínez P., Pérez Rodríguez L., Benítez T., Evolution of flor yeast population during the biological aging of fino sherry wine. Amer. J. Enol. Viticult., 1997, 48, 160–168.
  • 24. Nykänen I., Formation and occurrence of flavor compounds in wine and distilled alcoholic beverages. Amer. J. Enol. Viticult., 1986, 37, 84–96.
  • 25. Opolska G., Drzazga B., Characteristics of odorants in fruit distillates and their formation. Przem. Ferm. Owoc. Warz., 1991, 35, 12–13, 16 (in Polish).
  • 26. Postel W., Adam L., Gaschromatographische Charakterisierung von Weinbrand, Cognac und Armagnac II. Mitteilung: Gehalte an flüchtigen Inhaltstoffen. Die Branntweinwirtschaft, 1980, 121, 154–163 (in German).
  • 27. Postel W., Adam L., Jäger K.-H., Gaschromatographische Charakterisierung von Calvados. Die Branntweinwirtschaft, 1983, 124, 414–419 (in German).
  • 28. Postel W., Adam L., Flüchtige Stoffe in deutschen Weinbränden II. Mitteilung: Carbonylverbindungen, Acetale und Terpene. Die Branntweinwirtschaft, 1988, 129, 82–85 (in German).
  • 29. Postel W., Adam, L., Gaschromatographische Charakterisierung von Cognac und Armagnac – Gehalte an flüchtigen Verbindungen. Die Branntweinwirtschaft, 1990, 131, 208–213 (in German).
  • 30. Postel W., Adam L., Analytische Charakterisierung spanischer Brandies. Dtsch. Lebensm. Rundsch., 1996, 82, 4–10 (in German).
  • 31. Rostkowska-Denmer E., Wzorek W., Biochemical changes in wine composition during the process of cherring. Przem. Ferm. Owoc. Warz., 1998, 42, 34–38 (in Polish).
  • 32. Schreier P., Drawert F., Schmid M., Changes in the composition of neutral volatile components during the production of apple brandy. J. Sci. Food Agric., 1978, 50, 728–736.
  • 33. Sikorski Z., Chemical and functional properties of food components. 1996, WNT, Warszawa, pp. 430–436 (in Polish).
  • 34. Wanikawa A., Hosoi K., Kato T., Nakagawa K.I., Identification of Greek note compounds in malt whisky using multidimensional gas chromatography. Flavour Fragr. J., 2002, 17, 2007–2011.
Rekord w opracowaniu
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.