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2017 | 22 | 3 |
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Fattening, slaughter features and meat mineral composition of 3 beef cattle breeds

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The aim of the work was to assess the fattening capability and slaughter value, including the meat mineral composition, of 3 beef cattle breeds. In the first stage of the experiment, the experimental materials comprised 90 bulls divided into three groups of 30 animals each, representing three beef breeds: Kazakh Hereford (KH), Kazakh Whiteheaded (KW) and imported Hereford (IH). The second stage of the study involved 60 bulls at 450 days of age (± 10 days), 10 bulls of each breed were selected randomly and slaughtered. The tested bulls were fattened from 240 to 450 days and from 450 to 540 days of age, respectively (1st and 2nd stage). The studies showed that the birth weight of bulls was relatively low (slightly above 27 kg) in all groups. Until 240 days of age, imported Hereford bulls were characterized by the highest average daily gains (904 g day-1). At 360 days of age, the average body weight of bulls fattened indoors exceeded 300 kg; Kazakh Hereford bulls had the highest body weight, and differences in the average body weight between groups were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). From birth to 450 days of age, the highest daily gain of 810 g was noted in imported Hereford bulls. At 540 days of age, imported Hereford bulls fed indoors (maize silage, hay and concentrate) had the highest average body weight (487.2 kg). In bulls of all breeds, metabolic profile parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, protein, content of Ca, Na, K, Mg and P) remained within the reference ranges, which points to a good health status of animals. Moderate feeding contributed to achieving the highest weight at slaughter by imported Hereford bulls (377.2 kg). Imported Hereford bulls were also characterized by the carcass dressing percentage above 56%, the highest carcass lean content, the lowest carcass fat content and the largest MLD area. Meat from imported Hereford and Kazakh Hereford bulls had the most desirable chemical composition and sensory properties.
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