Migracje ludności wiejskiej w Ameryce Łacińskiej a gospodarka lokalna
Rural migration and local economy in Latin America
The main purpose of the paper is to describe the role of rural iabour migration in local economies. The latter is defined as the totality of economic activities realized in the area inhahited by a given society. The results of various case-studies realized in Latin America's rural areas in the 70 and 80 were the principal sources of analysis. The paper is composed of two sections. In the first the three following models of rural labour migration are defined and described: 1) migration for several months, mainly in so called „death period” (tiempo muerto) of local agriculture; 2) departures for some weeks which repeat several times during the year; 3) long-term migration. The main problem discussed in this section is the nature of relation between migration and labour resources for local economy. In the second section the role of rural labour migration as the source of revenues and innovations in local economy is presented. The effects of labour migration for local economy differ in various rural regions and in various rural communities. In some cases labour migration is an obstacle for more dynamic development of local economy as the most valuable human resources have been drained due to temporary departures. In the other cases migration facilitate the modernization of local economy due to experiences obtained by return migrants and possibilities of financing some innovations. The further comparative analysis of the relation between labour migration and local economy is necessary in order to explain the nature, diversity and complexity of contemporary transformations of rural areas in Latin America.