Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2012 | 19 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Utilization of non-medical healing methods as a way of coping with life difficulties in the socially deprived 'losers' of the systemic transformation processes in Poland

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Introduction and Objectives. One of the features of systemic transformation are its social costs. This is also the case with the Polish transformation initiated in 1989. Social processes connected with it are a kind of accelerator which increases the range of health needs realized outside the medical system. Utilization of non-medical healing methods may also be perceived as a way of coping with negative, i.e. sociopsychological consequences of transformation, including the fact that many people’s health needs were not met within institutional medicine. Such a situation results in a deepening of social inequalities in health. This problem will be presented from the perspective of ‘ordinary people’ in accordance with the leading research directive in medical sociology. Following the directives of humanistic sociology, the sources of information on the subject were personal documents. Materials and Methods. The paper presents selected results of the sociological qualitative analysis of 1,311 letters received by the editorial section of public Polish Television’s Channel Two in 1991 in connection with the broadcasting of a series of programmes conducted by the unconventional therapist Anatoly M. Kashpirovsky, who had a viewership of eight to nine million, on average. The presented and commented-on material consists of spectators’ statements on the adverse consequences of the systemic transformation, concerning health and illness. Results. The post-1989 political-system transformation is the most thorough-going social change in post-war Poland. It triggered off a number of both positive and negative processes. The negative ones include the deepening of social inequalities in health as a result of, inter alia, the progressive pauperization of society and also the growing utilization of non-medical healing methods. The negative effects of transformations are especially felt by typical ‘clients’ of Anatoly M. Kashpirovsky: poorly educated, indigent, residents of villages and small Polish towns: ‘the transformation process losers’. Conclusions. Systematic sociological knowledge on the ways of description and interpretation of health and illness by ‘lay people’ enables a more complete understanding of phenomena related to inequalities in health, including their social and structural causes.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Medical Sociology and Family, Institute of Sociology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland; Independent Medical Sociology Unit, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
  • Department of Sociology of Ethnic Groups and Civil Society, Institute of Sociology, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; Independent Medical Sociology Unit, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
  • 1. Staniszkis J. W poszukiwaniu paradygmatu transformacji (In search of the paradigm of transformation). Warszawa: Wyd. ISP PAN, 1994(in Polish).
  • 2. Sztompka P. Trauma wielkiej zmiany (The trauma of great change). Warszawa: Wyd. ISP PAN, 2000 (in Polish).
  • 3. Domański H., Rychard A. Elementy nowego ładu (Elements of the new order). Warszawa: Wyd. IFiS PAN, 1997 (in Polish).
  • 4. Wnuk-Lipiński E. Rozpad połowiczny. Szkice z socjologii transformacji ustrojowej (Partial disintegration. Essays in the sociology of politicoeconomictransformation). Warszawa: Wyd. ISP PAN, 1991 (in Polish).
  • 5. Gumuła W. Transformacja ustrojowa (Politico-economic transformation). In: Bokszański Z. et al. (eds.). Encyklopedia socjologii (Encyclopedia ofsociology). Vol. 4. Warszawa: Oficyna Naukowa, 2002: 259-267 (in Polish).
  • 6. Shaw M, Dorling D, Smith GD. Poverty, social exclusion, and minorities, In: Marmot M, Wilkinson RG (eds.). Social determinants of health.Oxford: University Press, 2003: 211-239.
  • 7. Kolasa-Nowak A. Zmiana systemowa w Polsce w interpretacjach socjologicznych (The systemic change in Poland in sociologicalinterpretations). Lublin: Wyd. UMCS, 2010: 75-78 (in Polish).
  • 8. Marody M. Między realnym socjalizmem a realną demokracją (Between real socialism and real democracy). In: Marody M (ed.). Oswajanierzeczywistości. Między realnym socjalizmem a realną demokracją(Domestication of reality. Between real socialism and real democracy).Warszawa: ISS UW, 1996 (in Polish).
  • 9. Warzywoda-Kruszyńska W, Grotowska-Leder J. Wielkomiejska bieda w okresie transformacji (Urban poverty during the transformation).Łódź: Wyd. Inst. Socjologii UŁ, 1996 (in Polish).
  • 10. Blaxter M. Medical sociology at the start of the new millennium. Soc Sci Med. 2000; 51: 1139-1142.
  • 11. Pearlin L. Structure and meaning in medical sociology, J Health Soc Beh. 1992; 33: 1-9.
  • 12. Ostrowska A. Zróżnicowanie społeczne a zdrowie. Wyniki badań warszawskich (Social stratification and health. Results of Warsawresearch). Warszawa: Wyd. IPSS, Warszawa 2009 (in Polish).
  • 13. Link BG, Phelan J. Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. J Health Soc Beh. 1995; Extra Issue: 80-94.
  • 14. Oakes JM, Rossi PH. The measurement of SES in health research: current practice and steps toward a new approach. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56: 769-784.
  • 15. Cockerham WC. Medical sociology. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2004; 61-70.
  • 16. Kaplan GA, Keil JE. Special report: socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature. AHA Medical/Scientific Statement. Special report. Circulation 1993; 88(4): 1973-1998.
  • 17. Wilkinson R, Marmot M (eds.). Social determinants of health. The solid facts. 2nd Edition. Centre for Urban Health, WHO Regional Office forEurope, 2008.
  • 18. Siegrist J, Marmot M. Health inequalities and the psychosocial environment – two scientific challenges. Soc Sci Med. 2004; 58: 1463-1473.
  • 19. Phelan J, Link BG, Diez-Roux A, Kawachi I, Levin B. “Fundamental causes” of social inequalities in mortality: a test of the theory. J HealthSoc Beh. 2004; 45(3): 265-285.
  • 20. Phelan JC, Link BG, Tehranifar P. Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: theory, evidence, and policy implications.J Health Soc Beh. 2010; 51(S): S28-S40.
  • 21. Siegrist J. Social differentials in chronic disease: what can sociological knowledge offer to explain and possibly reduce them? Soc Sci Med.1995; 41(12): 1603-1605.
  • 22. Adler NE, Ostrove JM. Socioeconomic status and health: what we know and what we don’t. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999; 896: 3-15.
  • 23. Bengtsson T, Mineau GP. Early-life effects on socioeconomic performance and mortality in later life: A full life–course approachusing contemporary and historical sources. Soc Sci Med. 2009; 68:1561-1564.
  • 24. Hernandez-Quevedo C, Jones AM, Lopez-Nicolas A, Rice N. Socioeconomic inequalities in health: a comparative longitudinalanalysis using the European Community Household Panel. Soc SciMed. 2006; 63: 1246-1261.
  • 25. von dem Knesebeck O, Verde PE, Dragano N. Education and health in 22 European countries. Soc Sci Med. 2006; 63: 1344-1351.
  • 26. Joint Report on Social Protection and Social Inclusion, Council on Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs; Council ofthe European Union, Brussels, 4 March 2008; No 7274/08: 11.
  • 27. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission onSocial Determinants of Health. Geneva, World Health Organization,2008.
  • 28. Robert S, House JP. Socioeconomic inequalities in health: an enduring sociological problem. In: Bird Ch, Conrad P, Fremont AM (eds.).Handbook of medical sociology. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall,2000: 79-97.
  • 29. Mackenbach JP, Bakker MJ. Tackling socioeconomic inequalities in health: analysis of European experiences. Lancet 2003; 362: 1409-1414.
  • 30. Kelly MP, Morgan A, Bonnefoy J. et al. The social determinants of health: Developing an evidence base for political action. Final report to WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Measurement andEvidence Knowledge Network, Chile-United Kingdom, October 2007.
  • 31. Sokołowska M. Socjologia medycyny (Medical sociology). Warszawa: PZWL, 1986 (in Polish).
  • 32. Ostrowska A. Nierówności w sferze zdrowia (Inequalities in health). Kultura i Społeczeństwo 1998; XLII, 2: 149-162 (in Polish).
  • 33. Ostrowska A. Styl życia a zdrowie. Z zagadnień promocji zdrowia (Lifestyle and health. Problems of health promotion). Warszawa: Wyd.IFiS PAN, 1999 (in Polish).
  • 34. Ostrowska A. Zróżnicowanie społeczne i nierówności w zdrowiu (Social stratification and health inequalities). In: Piątkowski W (ed.). Socjologia medycyną. W kręgu myśli naukowej Magdaleny Sokołowskiej(Sociology with medicine. In the circle of Magdalena Sokołowska’s scientific thought). Warszawa: Wyd. IFiS PAN, 2010: 23-47 (in Polish).
  • 35. Słońska Z. Rozwój i stan pojęcia „promocja zdrowia” w perspektywie socjologicznej (The development and state of the concept of ‘healthpromotion’ in the sociological perspective). In: Popielski K, Skrzypek M,Albińska E (eds.). Zdrowie i choroba w kontekście psychospołecznym(Health and illness in the psychosocial context). Lublin: Wyd. KUL,2010: 213-225.
  • 36. Skrzypek M. Niski status socjoekonomiczny jako społeczny czynnik ryzyka wieńcowego u progu XXI wieku (Low socioeconomic status asthe social risk factor of coronary heart disease at the threshold of the21st century). Polish J Cardiol. 2004; 6(4): 439-444 (in Polish).
  • 37. Skrzypek M. Kardiologia behawioralna – zarys stanu wiedzy i aplikacje kliniczne w obszarze badań nad chorobą wieńcową (Behavioralcardiology – the knowledge advances outline and clinical applicationsin the study of the coronary artery disease). Polish J Cardiol. 2008;10(2): 144-149 (in Polish).
  • 38. Skrzypek M. Geneza społecznych nierówności w zdrowiu w perspektywie cyklu życia człowieka na przykładzie choroby niedokrwiennej serca(The origin of social health inequalities from the life-cycle perspectiveas exemplified by coronary artery disease). In: K. Popielski, M. Skrzypek,E. Albińska (eds.). Zdrowie i choroba w kontekście psychospołecznym(Health and illness in the psychosocial context), Lublin: Wyd. KUL,2010: 245-267 (in Polish).
  • 39. Szparkowska P. Fikcje leczenia za darmo (Illusions of free treatment). Rzeczpospolita 2011; 106 (8922): 1 (in Polish).
  • 40. Halik J, Górecki W, Maciąg R. Problemy organizacji kolejek oczekujących na deficytowe zabiegi medyczne w Polsce i innychkrajach Europy (Problems of organization of waiting lists for medicalprocedures in short supply in Poland and other European countries).In: Piątkowski W, Brodniak A (eds.). Zdrowie i choroba. Perspektywasocjologiczna (Health and illness. A sociological perspective). Tyczyn:WSSG, 2005: 255-256 (in Polish).
  • 41. Alegria M, Pescosolido BA, Williams S, Canino G. Culture, Race/ ethnicity and disparities: fleshing out the socio-cultural framework forhealth services disparities. In: Pescosolido BA, Martin JK, McLeod JD,Rogers A. Handbook of the sociology of health, illness, and healing.A blueprint for the 21st century. New York: Springer, 2011: 363-382.
  • 42. Korzeniowska E, Puchalski K (eds.). Nisko wykształceni pracownicy a zdrowie – wyzwania dla edukacji zdrowotnej (Low-educatedemployees and health – a challenge to health education). Łódź: Wyd.Instytutu Medycyny Pracy im. Prof. J. Nofera, 2010: 5 (in Polish).
  • 43. Korzeniowska E. Nisko wykształceni pracownicy a zdrowie – przykład Polski (Low-educated employees and health – the example of Poland). In: Korzeniowska E, Puchalski K (eds.). Nisko wykształceni pracownicya zdrowie – wyzwanie dla edukacji zdrowotnej (Low-educatedemployees and health – a challenge to health education). Łódź: Wyd.Inst. Med. Pracy im. Prof. J. Nofera, 2010: 116-117 (in Polish).
  • 44. Skrzypek M. Perspektywa chorego w socjologii choroby przewlekłej. Ujęcia teoretyczne, ich ewolucja i recepcja (The sick person’s perspectivein the sociology of chronic illness. Theoretical perspectives, theirevolution and reception). Lublin: Wyd. KUL 2011.
  • 45. Freidson E. Patients’ views of medical practice. A study of subscribers to a prepaid medical plan in the Bronx. New York: Russel Sage Foundation 1961.
  • 46. Freidson E. Profession of medicine. A study of sociology of applied knowledge. New York: Dodd, Mead Publ. 1970.
  • 47. Sussman LK. The role of culture in definitions, interpretations, and management of illness. In: Gielen UP, Fish JM, Draguns JG (eds.).Handbook of culture, therapy, and healing. Mahwah, New Jersey,London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004: 37-65.
  • 48. Wojtyła A. Differences in health – a global problem and its various aspects. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011; 18(2): 191-192.
  • 49. Piątkowski W, Jezior J, Ohme R. Listy do Kaszpirowskiego. Spojrzenie socjologiczne (Letters to Kashpirovsky. A sociological view), Lublin: Wyd. M. Łoś, 1993: 43-52 (in Polish).
  • 50. Piątkowski W. Lecznictwo niemedyczne w Polsce – tradycja i współczesność. Analiza zjawiska z perspektywy socjologii zdrowia i choroby (Non-medical healing systems in Poland – tradition and thepresent day. An analysis of the phenomenon from the perspective ofhealth and illness). Lublin: Wyd. UMCS, 2008: 332-334 (in Polish).
  • 51. Mackenbach JP, Stirbu I, Roskam AJR et al. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries. NEJM 2008; 358: 2468-2481.
  • 52. Bowling A. Research methods in health. Investigating health and health services. 3rd edition. Open University Press, Mc Graw Hill, 2009: 447-461.
  • 53. Ostrowska A. Zdrowie i zachowania zdrowotne Polaków na początku XXI wieku (Health and health behaviors of the Poles in the early 21stcentury). In: Frysztacki K, Sztompka P (eds.). Polska początku XXIwieku: przemiany kulturowe i cywilizacyjne. (Poland in the early 21st century: cultural and civilizational transformations) Wyd. PolskaAkademia Nauk, Komitet Socjologii, Warszawa 2012: 355-366 (inPolish).
  • 54. Brodniak W. Ocena rozpowszechnienia zaburzeń psychicznych w perspektywie przemian społeczno-ekonomicznych w Polsce w latach1990-2002 (An assessment of the spread of mental disorders in theperspective of socioeconomic changes in Poland in 1990-2002). In:Piątkowski W, Brodniak W (eds.). Zdrowie i choroba. Perspektywasocjologiczna (Health and illness. A sociological perspective). Tyczyn:WSSG, 2005: 185-201 (in Polish).
  • 55. Ostrowska A. Samopoczucie psychiczne Polaków na tle Europejczyków (The Poles’ subjective mental health as compared with the Europeans).In: Piątkowski W, Brodniak W (eds.). Zdrowie i choroba. Perspektywasocjologiczna (Health and illness. A sociological perspective), Tyczyn:WSSG, 2005: 167-183 (in Polish).
  • 56. Komunikat z badań: “Telewizyjne spotkania z A. Kaszpirowskim” (An announcement on research of “Television meetings withKashpirovsky”), OBOP, 03.1990 (in Polish).
  • 57. Novack DH, Waldstein SR, Drossman DA et al. for the Professional Education Committee, American Psychosomatic Society. Designing andimplementing a comprehensive, integrated, longitudinal curriculumin biopsychosocial medicine,
  • 58. Piątkowski W. Beyond medicine. Non-medical methods of treatment in Poland. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, New York: Peter Lang Verlag,2012: 15-18.
rekord w opracowaniu
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.