Mobility of heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge from different throughput sewage treatment plants
Sewage sludge heavy metals can be dissolved, precipitated, co-precipitated with metal oxides, and adsorbed or associated on the particles in biological debris. Heavy metals are found in the form of oxides, hydroxides, sulphides, sulphates, phosphates, silicates, organic bindings forming complexes with humic compounds, and complex sugars. Polish regulations specifying the maximum levels of heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge used for agricultural purposes refer to the total content of lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel, zinc, copper, and chromium. The aim of our study was to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Świętokrzyskie Province. Stabilized sewage sludge from wastewater treatment was analyzed in accordance with the extraction method proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). Zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel were determined by means of the standard addition with the use of a Perkin-Elmer 3100-BG FAAS atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Chromium and copper were tested using the FAAS technique. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of heavy metals in all fractions (F-I, F-II, F-III, F-IV). It should be strongly emphasized that organometallics and aluminosilicates constitute the most prevalent forms of metals under consideration. Those, according to BCR, make fraction III and fraction IV, respectively. The results for stabilized sewage sludge confirmed a trend being observed in heavy metals concentrations in the immobile fractions, here in combination with aluminosilicates. On the basis of the investigations, it can be concluded that the dominant forms of heavy metals are immobile. It was shown that the total content of heavy metals in the sewage sludge does not provide an objective criterion for environmental risk evaluation. Bearing that in mind, however, it should be noted that heavy metals immobilized in the fraction F-III, may pose a potential hazard to soil in the aeration zone.
- Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Division of Waste Management, Al. 1000-lecia Panstwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
- Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Jan Kochanowski University of Humanities and Sciences, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce, Poland
- 1. KARCZEWSKA A., BOGDA A., WOLSZCZAK M., GAŁKA B., SZOPKA K., CEZARY KABAŁA C. Copper, Lead, and Zinc in soils within the industrial part of Różanka district in Wrocław, Ochrona Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych 41, 516, 2009 [In Polish].
- 2. SKINDER W. N. Chemistry and the Environment, WSiP, Warszawa 1991 [In Polish].
- 3. DZIADEK K., WACŁAWEK W. Metals in the environment part I heavy metals (Zn,Cu,Ni,Pb,Cd) in the soil environment, Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology 10, 33, 2005 [In Polish].
- 4. KALEMBASA D., MAJCHROWSKA-SAFARYAN A. Fraction of heavy metals in the beds after the cultivation mushroom from mushroom factor, Ochrona Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych 41, 572, 2009 [In Polish].
- 5. GWOREK B., RATEŃSKA J. Mercury migration in pattern air-soil-plant, Ochrona Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych 41, 614, 2009 [In Polish].
- 6. The regulation of Poland’s Minister of the Environment of 13th July 2010 on communal sewage sludge : Journal of Laws of the Polish Republic No. 137, item 924, 2010 [In Polish].
- 7. BERNACKA J., PAWŁOWSKA L. Harmful substances and their presence in sewage sludge. Edited by: Bień J. B., Sewage sludge – the rules and regulations, Scientific - Technical Conference, Częstochowa, 1999 [In Polish].
- 8. KROGMANN U., BOYLES L.PP., BAMKA W.J., CHAIPRAPAT PP., MARTEL C. J. Biosolids and sludge management, Water Environ. Repp., 71, (5), 692, 1999.
- 9. The Act on Environmental Protection of 27th April 2001. Journal of Laws of the Polish Republic No 62, item 627, 2001 [In Polish].
- 10. The Act on Water Law of 18th July 2001. Journal of Laws of the Polish Republic No. 115, item 1229, 2001 [In Polish].
- 11. The Act on Wastes of 27th April 2001. Journal of Laws of the Polish Republic No. 62, item 628, 2001 [In Polish].
- 12. The European Union Directives. The EU Landfill Directive 99/31/EC of 26th April 1999.
- 13. The European Union Directives. The Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC of 22nd November 2008.
- 14. The regulation of Poland’s Minister of the Environment of 24th July 2006 on conditions that have to be satisfied to discharge sewage to waters or to the ground and on substances particularly dangerous for the aquatic environment : Journal of Laws of the Polish Republic No. 137, item 984, as amended, 2006 [In Polish].
- 15. RYU H.W., MOON H.PP., LEE E.Y., CHO K.PP., CHOI H. Leaching characteristics of heavy metals from sewage sludge by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans MET, Journal of Environmental Quality 32, 751, 2003.
- 16. RADOSZ M., GAWDZIK J. Impact assessment of microwave hygienization sewage sludge on heavy metal mobility. Gaz, Woda i Technika Sanitarna 4, 24, 2005 [In Polish].
- 17. DAHLIN C.L., WILLIAMSON C.A., COLLINS W.K., DAHLIN D.C. Sequence extraction versus comprehensive characterization of heavy metal species in brownfield soils, Environmental Forensics 3, 191, 2002.
- 18. HULANICKI A. Modern analytical chemistry. Selected problems, PWN, Warszawa, 2001 [In Polish].
- 19. DE LA GUARDIA M., MORALES-RUBIO A. Modern strategies for the rapid determination of metals in sewage sludge, Trend. Anal. Chem. 15, (8), 311, 1996.
- 20. SADECKA Z., MYSZOGRAJ P. Sewage purification and sewage sludge processing, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego, Zielona Gora, 2007 [In Polish].
- 21. HRISTENSEN E.R. Metals, acid-volatile sulfides organics, and particle distributions of contaminated sediments. Water Sci. Technol. 37, (6), 149, 1998.
- 22. MAZUR-BEZAK E. Speciation in Environmental Protection and Engineering. Committee of Polish Academy of Science, Kielce, 2004 [In Polish].
- 23. PITT R., CLARK PP., FIELD R. Groundwater contamination potential from stormwater infiltration practices. Urban Water 1, 217, 1999.
- 24. ROGERS H.R. Sources, behaviour and fate of organic contaminants during sewage treatment and in sewage sludge, The Science of the Total Environment 185, 3, 1996.
- 25. XIANG L., CHAN L.C., WONG J.W.C. Removal of heavy metals from anaerobically digested sewage sludge by isolated indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria, Chemosphere 41, 283, 2000.
- 26. WANG M.J. Land application of sewage sludge in China, The Science of the Total Environment 197, 149, 1997.
- 27. CHEN M., Li X., YANG Q., ZENG G., ZHANG Y., LIAO D., LIU J., HU J., GUO L. Total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge from Changasha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan in middle-south region of China. J. Hazard. Mater. 160, 324, 2008.
- 28. PETROVIC D., TODOROVIC M., MANOJLOVIC D., KRSMANOVIC V. D. Speciations of Trace Metals in the Accumulation Bogovina on the Crni Timok River, Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 18, (5), 873, 2009.
- 29. ALVAREZ E.A., MOCHÓN M.C., JIMÉNEZ SÁNCHEZ J.C., RODRÍGUEZ M.T. Heavy metal extractable forms in sludge from wastewater treatment plants, Chemosphere 47, 765, 2002.
- 30. FYTILI D., ZABANIOTOU A. Utilization of sewage sludge in UE application of old and new methods – A review. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 12, 116, 2008.
- 31. WERTHER J., OGADA T. Sewage sludge combustion. Prog. Energ. Combust. 25, 55, 1999.
- 32. PALUCH J., PULIKOWSKI K., TRYBAŁA M. Protection of water and soil. Publishing House of the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 2001 [In Polish].
- 33. PN-EN ISO 5667-13:2004. The quality of water-collection of samples-Part 13: Procedure guidelines concerning the collection of sludge samples from sewage treatment plants and water purification plants, 2004 [In Polish].
- 34. PN-EN ISO 15587:2002. Water quality. Digestion for the determination of selected elements in water. Part 1: Aqua regia digestion, 2002 [In Polish].