Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 63 | 2 |

Tytuł artykułu

Grains in the diets of medium-sized carnivores – a case of diplochory?


Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Although most grasses (including cereals) are described as epizoochoric or anemochoric, many authors have shown that grains may be dispersed via the digestive tracts of animals, i.e. are endozoochoric. Cereals have been reported from carnivores' faeces several times; nevertheless, there is no data about the fate (i.e. capacity to germinate) of these grains. The scope of this paper is to focus on the role of medium-sized carnivores as potential secondary dispersers of grains. In 2010–2011, we examined 619 faeces of badgers Meles meles, foxes Vulpes vulpes and martens Martes sp. Faeces were collected every month from June to November in Kampinos National Park (KNP). In seven cases (1.1%) we found 64 grains of a total of two species of cereals: rye, Secale cereale and oats, Avena sativa, in the faeces of red fox and martens, with the red fox samples predominant. Some of the seeds retained the capacity to germinate and to establish seedlings. In two cases, included as accompanying material, feathers of a bird were found, which may suggest secondary dispersal of cereals via carnivores' guts.








Opis fizyczny



  • Department of Ecology, Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, 46 Lubicz, 31-512 Krakow, Poland
  • Department of Plant Ecology and Environmental Protection, A. Mickiewicz University, 89 Umultowska, 61-614 Poznan, Poland


  • R. Andrzejewski 2003 — Kampinoski Park Narodowy [Kampinos National Park] Vol. 1 — Kampinoski Park Narodowy, Izabelin. pp. 1–728 (in Polish).
  • A. Balestrieri, L. Remonti, C. Prigioni 2004 — Diet of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in an agricultural riverine habitat (NW Italy) — Hystrix, Italian J. Mammal. 15: 3–12.
  • E.H. Bucher, P.J. Bocco 2009 — Reassessing the importance of granivorous pigeons as massive, long-distance seed dispersers — Ecology, 90: 2321–2327.
  • R.O. Bustamante, J.A. Simonetti, J.E. Mella 1992 — Are foxes legitimate and efficient seed dispersers? A field test — Acta Oecologica, 13: 203–208.
  • R.T.J. Cappers, R.M. Bekker, J.E.A. Jans 2006 — Digital seed atlas of the Netherlands — Barkhuis Publishing & Graningen University Library, Graningen, 502 pp.
  • B. D'hondt, B. Bossuyt, M. Hoffmann, D. Bonte 2008 — Dung beetles as secondary seed dispersers in a temperate grassland — Basic Appl. Ecol. 9: 542–549.
  • F. Drygala, U. Werner, H. Zoller 2013 — Diet composition of the invasive raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides and the native red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-east Germany — Hystrix, Italian J. Mammal. 24: 190–194.
  • S. Erlinge 1986 — Specialists and generalists among the mustelids — Lutra, 29: 5–11.
  • D. Frank, S. Klotz 1990 — Biologisch-okologische Daten zur Flora der DDR — Martin-Luther-Universitat, Halle-Wittenberg.
  • W. Frąckowiak, R. Gula 1992 — The autumn and spring diet of brown bear Ursus arctos in the Bieszczady Mountains of Poland — Acta Theriol. 37: 339–344.
  • B. Gołdyn, M. Hromada, A. Surmacki, P. Tryjanowski 2003 — Habitat use and diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in an agricultural landscape in Poland — Z. Jagdwiss. 49: 191–200.
  • J. Goszczyński 1976 — Composition of the food of martens — Acta Theriol. 21: 527–534.
  • J. Goszczyński 1986 — Diet of foxes and martens in Central Poland — Acta Theriol. 31: 491–506.
  • J. Goszczyński, B. Jędrzejewska, W. Jędrzejewski 2000 — Diet composition of badgers Meles meles in a pristine forest and rural habitats of Poland compared to other European populations — J. Zool., London, 250: 495–505.
  • Ł. Jankowiak, M. Antczak, P. Tryjanowski 2008 — Habitat use, food and the importance of poultry in the diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in extensive farmland in Poland — World. Appl. Sci. J. 4: 886–890.
  • D.H. Janzen 1984 — Dispersal of small seeds by big herbivores: foliage is the fruit — Am. Nat. 123: 338–353.
  • B. Jaroszewicz, E. Pirożnikow 2008 — Diversity of plant species eaten and dispersed by the European bison Bison bonasus in Białowieża Forest — European Bison Concerv. Newsletter 1: 14–29.
  • B. Jensen, D. Sequeira 1978 — The diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in Denmark — Danish Rev. Game Biol. 10: 1–16.
  • W. Jędrzejewski, W. Sidorowicz 2010 — [The art of animal tracking] — Mammal Research Institute PAS, Białowieża, pp. 1–227 (in Polish).
  • B. Jędrzejewska, W. Jędrzejewski 1998 — Predation in vertebrate communities: the Bialowieza Primeval Forest as a case study — Springer, Berlin. pp. 1–457.
  • D. Kidawa, R. Kowalczyk 2011 — The effects of sex, age, season and habitat on diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in northeastern Poland — Acta Theriol. 56: 209–218.
  • I. Kožena 1990 — Contribution to the food of wild cats Felis sylvestris — Folia Zool. 39: 207–212.
  • R.W. Mysłajek, S. Nowak, A. Rożen, B. Jędrzejewska 2013 — Diet of the Eurasian badger Meles meles in the Western Carpathians and its implications for species conservation in Poland — Animal Biol. 63: 271–284.
  • M. Nogales, F.M. Medina, A. Valido 1996 — Indirect seed dispersal by the feral cats Felis catus in island ecosystems (Canary Islands) — Ecography, 19: 3–6.
  • M. Nogales, J.D. Delgado, F.M. Medina 1998 — Shrikes, lizards and Lycium intricatum (Solanaceae) fruits: a case of indirect seed dispersal on an oceanic island (Alegranza, Canary Islands) — J. Ecol. 86: 866–871.
  • M. Nogales, D.P. Padilla, C. Nieves, J.C. Illera, A. Traveset 2007 — Secondary seed dispersal systems, frugivorous lizards and predatory birds in insular volcanic badlands — J. Ecol. 95: 1394–1403.
  • G. Orłowski, J. Czarnecka 2009 — Granivory of birds and seed dispersal: viable seeds of Amaranthus retroflexus recovered from the droppings of the grey partridge Perdix perdix — Pol. J. Ecol. 57: 191–196.
  • M. Posłuszny, M. Pilot, J. Goszczyński, B. Gralak 2007 — Diet of sympatric pine marten Martes martes and stone marten Martes foina identified by genotyping of DNA from faeces — Ann. Zool. Fenn. 44: 269–284.
  • P. Redbo-Torstensson, A. Telenius 1995 — Primary and secondary seed dispersal by wind and water in Spergularia salina — Ecography, 18: 230–237.
  • A. Rodriguez, B. Rodriguez, B. Rumeu, M. Nogales 2007 — Seasonal diet of the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea on an oceanic island (Tenerife, Canary Islands): indirect interaction with wild seed plants — Acta Orn. 42: 77–87.
  • T.J. Roper, E. Mickevicius 1995 — Badger Meles meles diet: a review of literature from the former Soviet Union — Mammal. Rev. 25: 117–129.
  • S.B. Vander Wall, W.S. Longland 2004 — Diplochory: are two seed dispersers better than one? — Trends Ecol. Evol. 19: 155–161.
  • S.B. Vander Wall, K.M. Kuhn, J.R. Gworek 2005 — Two-phase seed dispersal: linking the effects of frugivorous birds and seed-caching rodents — Plant Animal Interactions, 145: 282–287.
  • J.A. Wiens, R.F. Johnston 1977 — Adaptative correlates of granivory in birds (In: Granivorous birds in ecosystems, Eds: J. Pinowski, S.C. Kendeigh) — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 301–340.

Typ dokumentu


Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.