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Tytuł artykułu

Magnesium: its role in nutrition and carcinogenesis

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Magnesium (Mg2+) plays a key role in many essential cellular processes such as intermediary metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transporting potassium and calcium ions, cell proliferation together with signalling transduction. Dietary sources rich in magnesium are whole and unrefined grains, seeds, cocoa, nuts, almonds and green leafy vegetables. Hard water is also considered to be an important source of magnesium beneficial to human health. The daily dietary intake of magnesium is however frequently found to be below that recommended in Western countries. Indeed, it is recognised that magnesium deficiency may lead to many disorders of the human body, where for instance magnesium depletion is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of the following; cardiovascular disease (including thrombosis, atherosclerosis, ishaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure in human), as well as diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease, liver cirrhosis and diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Insufficient dietary intake of magnesium may also significantly affect the development and exacerbation of ADHD (Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder) symptoms in children. The known links between magnesium and carcinogenesis still remain unclear and complex, with conflicting results being reported from many experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies; further knowledge is thus required. Mg2+ ions are enzyme cofactors involved in DNA repair mechanisms that maintain genomic stability and fidelity. Any magnesium deficiencies could thereby cause a dysfunction of these systems to occur leading to DNA mutations. Magnesium deficiency may also be associated with inflammation and increased levels of free radicals where both inflammatory mediators and free radicals so arising could cause oxidative DNA damage and therefore tumour formation. The presented review article now provides a summary discussion of the various research performed concerning the impact that low magnesium intake has on tumour incidence; this includes impairment of magnesium homeostasis frequently observed in tumour cells, the influence of magnesium depletion on the progression of existing tumours and the occurrence of hypo-magnesaemia when patients are treated with certain anticancer drugs.
PL
Magnez odgrywa kluczową rolę w wielu procesach komórkowych, takich jak metabolizm energii, replikacja i naprawa DNA, transport jonów potasu i wapnia, proliferacja komórek, a także transdukcja sygnału. Pełne ziarna zbóż, kakao, orzechy, migdały, zielone warzywa liściaste są dobrym źródłem magnezu. Twarda woda jest również uważana za ważne źródło magnezu, które pozytywnie wpływa na zdrowie człowieka. Dzienne spożycie magnezu w krajach zachodnich często jest poniżej zalecanej dawki. Niedobór magnezu może prowadzić do wielu zaburzeń w organizmie człowieka. Uważa się, że deficytjonów Mg2+ może odgrywać ważną rolę w etiologii wielu chorób, takich jak choroby sercowo-naczyniowe (zakrzepica, miażdżyca tętnic, choroba niedokrwienna serca, zawał mięśnia sercowego, nadciśnienie, zaburzenia rytmu serca, zastoinowa niewydolność serca), cukrzyca, choroby układu pokarmowego, marskość wątroby, choroby tarczycy i przytarczyc. Niewystarczające spożycie magnezu może mieć znaczący wpływ na rozwój i pogłębienie objawów ADHD u dzieci. Rola magnezu w procesie kancerogenezy jest skomplikowana. Mimo stosunkowo dużej liczby badań aktualny stan wiedzy na temat zależności pomiędzy poziomem magnezu, a kancerogenezą jest ciągle niewystarczający i niespójny. Jony magnezu pełnią funkcję kofaktorów enzymów zaangażowanych w mechanizmy naprawcze DNA, które odpowiedzialne są za utrzymywanie stabilności genomu i wierności replikacji. W związku z tym niedobór magnezu może przyczyniać się do wadliwego działania tych systemów i występowania mutacji DNA. Ponadto, w badaniach na zwierzętach obserwowano korelację pomiędzy obniżonym stężeniem magnezu, a stanem zapalnym i wzrostem poziomu wolnych rodników. Zarówno mediatory zapalne jak i wolne rodniki przyczyniają się do generowania uszkodzeń oksydacyjnych DNA, których następstwem może być powstawanie nowotworów. W artykule omówiono niektóre aspekty badań dotyczących wpływu niskiego spożycia magnezu na częstość występowania nowotworów, zaburzonej homeostazy magnezu obserwowanej w komórkach nowotworowych, wpływu niedoboru magnezu na progresję istniejących nowotworów oraz występowania hipomagnezemii w trakcie leczenia pacjentów niektórymi lekami przeciwnowotworowymi.
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
64
Numer
3
Opis fizyczny
p.165-171,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Department of Fermentation Technology and Technical Microbiology, Agricultural University in Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow, Poland
  • Department of Fermentation Technology and Technical Microbiology, Agricultural University in Krakow, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow, Poland
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Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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Identyfikator YADDA
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