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Epidemiology of Salmonella and Salmonellosis

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The prevalence of enteritis and its accompanying diarrheal and other health challenges linked to infections with Salmonella has continuously plagued sub Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, typhoid fever is among the major widespread diseases affecting both young and old as a result of many interrelated factors such as inadequate sanitaion, indiscriminate use of antibiotics and fecal contamination of water sources. Morbidity associated with illness due to Salmonella continues to increase with untold fatal consequences, often resulting in death. An accurate figure of cases is difficult to arrive at because only large outbreaks are mostly investigated whereas sporadic cases are under-reported. A vast majority of rural dwellers in Africa often resort to self medication or seek no treatment at all, hence serving as carries of this disease. Non typhoidal cases of salmonellosis account for about 1.3 billion cases with 3 million deaths annually. Given the magnitude of the economic losses incurred by African nations in the battle against salmonella and salmonellosis, this article takes a critical look at the genus Salmonella, its morphology, isolation, physiological and biochemical characteristics, typing methods, methods of detection, virulence factor, epidemiology and methods of spread within the environment.
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  • Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
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